Morphological Variations of the Thyroid Gland in the North Indians: A Cadaveric Study with its Clinical Relevance
Morphological Variations of the Thyroid Gland
Introduction: The morphological variations of the thyroid gland are not an uncommon phenomenon and may due to embryological remnant or non-specific development of different parts of it. Prior anatomical knowledge of these variations is of immense importance to prevent catastrophies during or after thyroid surgeries. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence of morphological variations of the thyroid glands in north Indian cadavers. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 formalin embalmed adult human cadavers aging between 40–65 years, of which 40 were males and 10 were females. Thyroid glands were dissected and examined properly for the presence of pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroidae, accessory thyroid tissue and complete absence of isthmus. Results: The pyramidal lobe was present in 9 (18%) and frequently arising from the right side of the isthmus. LGT was found in 7 (14%) and almost in all cases it was extending from the apex of the pyramidal lobe to the hyoid bone. Only 2 (4%) cadavers did not show an isthmus while accessory thyroid tissue was found only in one case. Morphological variations were more common in females than in males and the difference was statistically significant (p value<0.05). The means of all measured parameters were higher in female than in male but these gender differences were not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Morphological variation of the thyroid gland is a common phenomenon, particularly in female. Hence it requires proper detection and documentation prior to any thyroid surgery, so that iatrogenic catastrophies can be avoided.