Academia Anatomica International <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br><strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Academia Anatomica International 2617-5207 CT Scan Evaluation of Prevalence of Paradoxical Middle Turbinate In Adult Population of Bihar <p>Introduction: Middle turbinate overlying the middle meatus is the most important anatomic area in the lateral wall of the nose. It is a thin<br>sheet of bone which curves in different planes very similar to a dried leaf. Paradoxical Middle Turbinate (PMT) is the abnormal curvature<br>of middle turbinate, where the convex surface faces laterally instead of its usual medial curvature and may block the drainage pathway of<br>middle meatus. The present study aimed at observing the prevalence of the paradoxical middle turbinate in the adult population of Bihar. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective study being conducted on 150 patients who presented to the Department of Radiodiagnosis. Their CT scans were analysed for the presence of paradoxical middle turbinate. The results were analysed as percentage and ‘p’ value was calculated using Fischer’s Exact Test. Results: Prevalence of Paradoxical Middle Turbinate was observed in 28 cases i.e. 18.6% cases; 16 in males and 12 in females. ‘p’ value was 0.677 on applying Fisher’s Exact test. Conclusion: Anatomical variations of the paranasal sinus region like paradoxical middle turbinate are quite common cause of diseases involving paranasal sinuses and they must be searched for by the surgeons planning any endoscopic sinus surgery. This study attempted to provide the prevalence of the paradoxical middle turbinate which will definitely help the FESS surgery and its outcomes.</p> Raag Reeti Md Jawed Akhtar Avanish Kumar Binod Kumar Rajiv Ranjan Sinha Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 01 04 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.1 Anatomical Study of Variations in the Origin of Axillary Artery Branches and Its Clinical Emphasis <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Axillary artery, one of the most important arteries of the upper limb is gaining increasing interest in the cardiac and cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries. The present study describes the number of branches arising from axillary artery and variations in their origin. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 40 upper limbs from 20 adult embalmed human cadavers of both the sexes were studied by dissection method at the Department of Anatomy, MVJ Medical College, and Bangalore. <strong>Results: </strong>The number of branches arising from axillary artery varied from 4 -7.The most common variation in the present study was observed in the origin of subscapular artery(15%), followed by posterior circumflex humeral (10%), anterior circumflex humeral &amp; lateral thoracic (7.5% each) and superior thoracic artery (2.5%). Any type of variation in the origin of thoracoacromial artery was not found in the present study. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge of variations in the origin of axillary artery branches is of immense significance to anatomists, anaesthetists, cardiovascular and orthopaedic surgeons during surgical exploration of axilla, during flap or reconstructive surgeries, shoulder dislocation and for radiologists during angiography.</p> Suman Tiwari M Khizer Hussain Afroze Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 05 09 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.2 A Study on Morphometric Dimensions of Human Fetal Spleen at Different Gestational Ages <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The spleen is the largest hemolymphatic organ of the human body that plays a significant role in Hematopoiesis and immune phagocytosis. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of spleen as hematopoietic organ in fetal period, role in synthesis of immunoglobulins &amp; defense of human body against infections. A thorough knowledge of splenic morphometry and dimensions is vital in comprehending the development of spleen in fetal period.<strong>Aim:</strong>The aim of the study is to study detailed morphometric analysis&nbsp; human fetal splenic specimens of various gestational ages&nbsp; and compare the findings with earlier studies<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:The&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; included&nbsp; 40&nbsp; fetal cadaveric spleen and&nbsp; morphometric features i.e.,length, breadth, width and weight of spleen were measured.<strong>Results:</strong>The average weight of the fetal spleen was 1.98 gm and varied from 0.1 to 5.1 gm. The average length, breadth and width of spleen in prenatal group were 2.21 cm, 1.39 cm and 0.645 cm respectively. In the present study the average weight of the fetal spleen was 1.98 gm and varied from 0.1 to 5.1 gm. There was statistically significant increase in splenic weight till 33 weeks.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>Knowledge of spleen size at different gestational ages will help in early detection and diagnosis of splenic anomalies, identifying congenital malformations, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of intrauterine infections.</p> D. Srivani P. Sofia J. Jayachandra Pillai Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 10 14 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.3 A Study on Morphohistometric Changes of Placenta in Gestational Diabetes- A Comparative Analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The placenta is a complex fetal organ that fulfills pleotrophic roles during fetal growth. Placenta is the most accurate record of the infant’s prenatal experience. Gestational diabetes is much common than preexisting diabetes .i.e. it complicates 2% to 5% of pregnancies. It seems reasonable to expect that biochemical changes occurring in the pregnant women with diabetes should be reflected in the placental structure. Aim &amp; objectives: In the present study an attempt is made to know the morphological changes of placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:In this study totally 60 placentae were studied, of which 30 were nondiabetic placentae and 30 from Gestational Diabetic mothers were studied macroscopically. Morphologically the shape, site of attachment of umbilical cord, central thickness of placenta was noted. Birth weight of the neonate and the placental ratio were also recorded. By using routine staining techniques and direct microscopy tissues of Gestational Diabetic placenta were studied qualitatively and compared them with normal placenta.<strong>Results:</strong>Our study demonstrates that there is a significant increase in weight and central thickness of placenta. Neonatal weight and placental ratio were also increased; there was no change in shape and site of attachment of umbilical cord in case of diabetic placenta when compared to normal. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>On the basis of results of present study it is concluded that diabetic placentae showed increase in weight and central thickness. Neonatal weight and placental ratio were also increased. These findings indicate that control of hyperglycemia only partially prevents the development of placental abnormalities.</p> Atoofa Jaleel Ravinder M Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 15 19 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.4 A Study on Distribution and Mode of Origin of Median Nerve and its Relation to the Flexor Retinaculum <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The precise knowledge of level of origin of muscular branches of median nerve are essential in free muscular transfers to restore the mobility of fingers after trauma and to understand the various presentations of nerve entrapment. The anatomical knowledge and variations of recurrent nerve is important to prevent the complications during the release of transverse carpal ligament.Aim &amp; Objectives: To study the points of origin of muscular branches with respect to IEL and number of branches to muscles of forearm and also learn the mode of origin of recurrent nerve and its relation to the flexor retinaculum.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:Dissection 40 upper limbs procured from embalmed cadavers of Dr. VRK Women’s Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Hyderabad, for the study.<strong>Results:</strong>The mean of point of origin of NPT was 1.21 cm proximal and 1.20 cm distal to IEL whereas for NFCR, NPL, NFDS and AIN nerve it was 2.12 cm, cm, 4.54 cm and 3.29 cm distal to IEL respectively. The number of branches to muscles of forearm varied from 1 to 3. The recurrent nerve was arising from lateral and intermediate branches of median nerve in 39 (97.5%) and 1 specimens (6%) respectively. Its relationship with flexor retinaculum was extra ligamentous in 33 specimens (82.5%) and transligamentous in 7 specimens (17.5%). It innervated APB, FPB and OP in 19 specimens (47.5%), only APB, FPB in 16 specimens (45%) and only APB, OP in 3 specimens (7.5%).<strong>Conclusion:</strong>All the muscular branches of median nerve were arising predominantly distal to IEL except nerve to pronator teres. The number of branches varied from 1 to 3. In majority of the specimens, the recurrent nerve was arising from the lateral terminal branch of median nerve and its relation with flexor retinaculum was extraligamentous.</p> Atoofa Jaleel Ravinder M Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 20 25 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.5 Morphometric Analysis of Bicipital Groove in Haryanvi Population <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Bicipital groove (BG) in the proximal part of humerus is an indentation formed between the lesser and greater tubercle forms the lateral edge of lesser tubercle forms the medial border of bicipital groove. It contains the long head of the biceps brachii muscle, its synovial sheath and an ascending branch of the anterior circumflex humeral artery. The depth and width are very important in retention of tendon of biceps. Several authors reported greater incidence of sublaxation and dislocation of tendon of biceps when the BG is shallow. Morphometry of bicipital groove may influence the functions of surrounding structure leading to various pathological condition. BG is important landmark for replacement of prosthesis of shoulder. Thus knowledge of BG is highly useful in prosthetic sizing, positioning and designing. Aim and objectives – To study the morphometry of bicipital groove (BG).<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:Present study was done on 50 humeri in PGIMS Rohtak in which 25 were of right side and 25 left side. The length, width, depth of BG and the length of the medial and lateral wall of intertubercular sulcus were measured using digital Vernier caliper. Data was recorded separately for right and left humeri then it was analyzed statistically using independent t test, p value &lt;0.05 were considered significant. The data was presented as mean ±SD.<strong>Results:</strong>In present study above stated parameters were measured which came out to be statistically insignificant except the width of BG, which showed the statistical difference. The p value for the width of BG was &lt; 0.05. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>Knowledge of BG is highly useful in prosthetic sizing, positioning and designing. The present study is an attempt to determine the morphometric parameters of BG in terms of length of medial wall, lateral wall, length of BG, width and depth of BG. The data on morphometry of BG will be of utmost use for radiologists, orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists.</p> Neeru Ghalawat Vivek Singh Malik Vipin Kumar Garsa Suresh Kanta Rathee Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 6 1 26 29 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.6 Histomorphological Profile of Liver and Kidney Tissues of Albino Wistar Rats Following Exposure to Cadmium-Induced Damage and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cadmium is a common heavy metal toxicant that can cause diverse tissue toxicities and pathologies. Conversely, ascorbic acid is a natural anti-oxidant that can ameliorate cytotoxic effects of tissue toxicants.&nbsp; In this study, the objective was to assess the histomorphological profile of liver and kidney tissues of albino Wistar rats after exposure to cadmium-induced damage and ascorbic acid supplementation. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 24 animals were divided into four groups (1-4) comprising of six animals each (n=6). Normal control group 1 was given distilled water, test control group 2 given 5 mg/kg Cadmium chloride and test groups 3 and 4 given 5 mg/kg Cadmium chloride + 100 mg/kg ascorbic acid and 5 mg/kg + 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid respectively. The route of the 21 days administration was oral. Thereafter, the liver and kidney of experimental animals were harvested, weighed and processed.&nbsp; <strong>Results: </strong>Only the test control group 2 showed significant (p &lt; 0.05) reduction in mean organ weight compared to normal control group 1.&nbsp; Similarly, only the test control group 2 animals showed significant alterations in the liver and kidney histomorphological profile compared to normal control group 1. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The ascorbic acid exhibited prominent ameliorative effect against damaging effect of cadmium exposure leading to relative reparation of liver and kidney histomorphology in albino Wistar rats.</p> Uche C. Okwuonu Dayo R. Omotoso Emmanuel O. Bienonwu Osahenrhumwen Adagbonyin Joseph Dappa Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 6 1 30 34 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.7 Leveraging Mobile Communication App to Enable off Classroom Learning-Anatomy <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The study of Medicine is one of the primarily taxing and tedious disciplines of study. Aassimilation of intense knowledge and acuminating various skills in a short tenure is one of the challenges faced by students making learning more by rote, short-term and exam oriented. This study intended to explore an alternative innovative method for ensuring off classroom teaching-learning process. Aim and objectives: To study response of students towards learning with the aid of mobile communication app. To analyse both the impact of this teaching mode on self-directed learning and academic performance. To compare the academic performance of Blended Learning group with Traditional Learners.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:Single observer interventional study was carried out among First year MBBS students. Group I students received traditional teaching (TL group n=80) while Group II students included Blended learners (BL group n=120) who received Traditional teaching and Mobile teaching. Both the groups were evaluated at periodic intervals by same assessment methods, mean of their academic scores were compared using t- test. In addition BL group was also administered an online questionnaire using five-point Likert scale to assess their perception with regards to the mobile teaching-learning process.<strong>Results:</strong>BL group students agreed that this mode of teaching-learning was beneficial encouraged them to read more than their regular also helped in developing their analytic skills. The academic results of the BL group though higher than TL group did not show statistical significant difference.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>This innovative method can be adapted in teaching other subjects at different levels of medicine curriculum.</p> Kate Deepali R Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 6 1 35 39 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.8 Variant Anatomy of Hypoglossal Canal: An Osteological Study in North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>To assess the presence of duplicated hypoglossal canal. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A total of 80 dried human skulls were collected from the Anthropology lab of the department of Anatomy K.G.M.U.,U. P., Lucknow, India. The skulls were examined for duplicated hypoglossal canal and presence of posterior condylar canal. Theskulls were closely inspected with the use of hand lens. <strong>Results: </strong>We observed bilateral duplicated hypoglossal canal in 3 skulls (3.75%), Unilateral duplication was seen in 15 skulls (18.75%) [i.e.7 on the right side and 8 on the left side]. We observed that the presence of duplicated hypoglossal canal was mostly associated with the presence of posterior condylar canal. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Duplicated hypoglossal canal in humans may result in minor degrees of alterations in the movements of the tongue due to entrapment of nerve during ossification. The clinical relevance of this knowledge is important for radiologists and neurosurgeons.</p> Yadav S Pandey P Pasricha N Bhatnagar R Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 6 1 40 42 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.9 Revisiting the Morphological Variations in Lumbricals of Hand <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The lumbrical muscles are unique in their functions in being only intrinsic muscles which bridges between the palmar and dorsal surface. This unique property endows them in performing fast, alternating movements and fine tuning digit motion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations in the morphology and architecture of lumbricals and to discuss its clinical implications. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study was conducted on 74 disarticulated upper limbs during routine dissection of cadavers in the Department of Anatomy of MVJMC &amp; RH. The dissection was carried out based on the steps as per the Cunningham’s manual. <strong>Results: </strong>Variations in lumbricals were observed in 12 specimens (8 in right side &amp; 4 in left side). The variation encountered were the proximal origin of lumbricals in 4 specimens (5.41%), Split insertion in one specimen (1.35%), bipennate second lumbrical in two specimens (2.70%), accessory belly of first lumbrical in 4 specimens (5.41%) and hypertrophied lumbrical in one specimen (1.35%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Variations of the lumbrical can present with wide range of clinical presentations like compression of neurovascular structures as in hypertrophy, carpal tunnel syndrome as in proximal origin and accessory belly of lumbrical.</p> Khizer Hussain Afroze M Sangeeta M Varalakshmi K.L Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 6 1 43 48 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.10 Morphometry of the Human Placenta in Mining and Non-Mining Areas in Northwestern Tanzania; A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Placenta morphometry varies with increased heavy metal concentrations among other factors. There is limited knowledge on the effect of perceived heavy metal exposure due to mining activities on placenta morphometry specific to the Tanzanian population. The study thus aimed to determine the morphometric characteristics of the human placenta and the association between placental weight with maternal factors in mining and non-mining areas in Northwestern Tanzania. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted in Mwanza and Geita regions of Northwestern Tanzania representing the mining and non-mining areas, respectively. Included in the study were placentas from 490 mothers, residing in the respective areas throughout pregnancy. Comparison of the placenta morphometric variables between the two groups was made using the independent sample t-test, and association between the maternal factors and placenta weight was done using multi-level linear analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean placenta weight in the non-mining and mining areas was 465.9±101.2 g and 443.6±82.7g, and the mean thickness was 1.52±0.32cm and 1.61±0.38cm respectively. The mean diameter in the non-mining and mining areas was 19.0±1.9cm, the mean cotyledon number was 20±5 and 19±4, and the mean cord length was 49.0±12.7cm and 50.1 ±10.4cm respectively. With the exception of cord length, the differences in the morphometric parameters in the non-mining and mining areas were significant p&lt;0.5.&nbsp; Increase in maternal weight on booking and maternal age were associated with corresponding increase in placenta weight. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of this study seem to suggest that heavy metal exposure due to mining activities does affect placenta growth.</p> Mary Ndibalema Erisa Mwaka Peter Rambau Ian Munabi William Buwembo Copyright (c) 2020 Academia Anatomica International 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 6 1 49 53 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.11 Study of Morphology and Morphometry of Placenta <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The placental examination provide significant information related to intrauterine foetal death, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Malformations, infections and effects of maternal diseases on fetal growth. The magnitude of the clinical problems related to the development and the functions of the placenta is so vast that it worth undertaking morphological aspect of Human placenta A thorough examination of the placenta is neglected often underestimated by the Physician and Gynecologist Pediatrician and pathologist despite its invaluable role in the fetal development. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: In our present study, 50 freshly delivered placentae have collected The placenta and the umbilical cord were examined to look for any abnormalities in the shape, cord insertion, and vessels in the cord, placenta weight, its circumference, diameter, volume, and thickness at the level of cord insertion were also noted. Baby's weight at birth and age in weeks, maternal history about diabetes and hypertension were also recorded down. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 20.0, USA was used to do statistical analysis of the measurements. <strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, the placenta weight, volume, diameter, and circumference show a strong correlation with fetal weight. We found the placenta of round and abnormal shapes in 88% and 12% of cases, respectively. In 77% of cases, we got normal cord insertion and in 23% of cases, abnormal cord insertion. Statistical analysis of all the parameters of the placenta was done. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study, Placental weight, volume, diameter, and circumference showed a strong correlation with fetal weight. The knowledge of these measurements on the placenta and umbilical cord will be helpful to the pediatrician and obstetrician in clinical practice.</p> Ch. Sudhakarbabu M. Indira Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 6 1 54 57 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.12 Microvasculature of Anterior Cruciate Ligament by Immunohistochemistry using VE-Cadherin <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the knee stabilizer and acts to prevent excessive anterior mobility as well as rotational movement. The ACL is extending from the lateral femoral condyle to the anterior intercondylar area of tibia. During excessive movement or abnormal mobility affecting the knee joint, the ACL is under tension and prone for injury. The injured ACL was managed by surgery as it was an option for treatment owing to its poor vascularity. The distribution of the blood vessels within the ACL was not clear and only few studies reported in the past. The present study focused on distribution of blood vessels in the ACL. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The ACL microvasculature was assessed using 48 cadaveric ACL tissues using immunohistochemistry. The antibody against the transmembrane protein VE-Cadherin was targeted to study the blood vessels. <strong>Results: </strong>It was observed that the middle part of the ACL was less vascular compared with the peripheral parts of ACL. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge of the ACL vasculature may help in planning surgeries of ACL to reduce postoperative complications.</p> Jahira Banu T Yogesh Ashok Sontakke Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 6 1 58 61 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.13 Complete Adipose Replacement of Bilateral Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle - A Cadaveric Case Report <p>Sarcopenia and infiltration of intermuscular adipose tissue are often seen in older adults due to aging process, but a muscle is completely replaced by adipose tissue is rarely reported. In this cadaveric case, we describe an observation of bilateral symmetric adipose replacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscles (GM) on both left and right leg in an 82-year old Caucasian female, whose cause of death was advanced dementia. The white adipose tissue replaced the entire medial GM muscle belly with pennate-like arrangement, indicating adipose tissue infiltration very likely into the original muscle cells. Where and how these adipose tissues come from are discussed.</p> Charles Nichols Elizabeth Liu Howe Liu Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 6 1 62 64 10.21276/aanat.2020.6.1.14