Academia Anatomica International https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Academia Anatomica International 2617-5207 Morphometric Study of Posterior Cranial Fossa Using Computerized Tomographic (CT) Images https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/481 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The posterior cranial fossa is the largest and the deepest of the three fossae. Contents of posterior cranial fossa include occipital part of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Variations in the volume of posterior cranial fossa may cause compression of these structures which may lead to various disorders. There is increasing evidence on the diagnostic potential of posterior cranial fossa measurements. The present study on morphometry of posterior cranial fossa based on CT images of patients without any clinical abnormality was undertaken for the first time in south Indian population. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: To study and compare sex-wise and age-wise differences in the supratentorial and posterior cranial fossa (PF) measurements in the normal CT scan images of 62 males and 38 females who attended the Neurology department of SVIMS belonging to Rayalaseema region was undertaken. The measurements that were recorded are transverse diameter (TD) and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of supratentorial part and also posterior cranial fossa and height and volume of posterior cranial fossa. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean supratentorial TD and APD were found to be less in male but were not statistically significant sex-wise and age-wise. The mean posterior fossa APD was significant, PF height and volume were highly significantly in males. <strong>Discussion:</strong> There are no reports on supratentorial parameters in literature for comparing the results of present study. Except for one study on CT on height and volume of posterior cranial fossa there are no other studies for comparing the values of present study. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Observations on supratentorial parameters of the present study are the first to be reported in literature.Age-wise and sex-wise observation of parameters of TD and APD of PF are the first to be reported in literature.</p> Hemalata Rath Subhadra Devi Velichety Lakshmi AY Thyagaraju K Pavan P Havaldar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 1 5 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.1 Variation in the Origin of Superior Thyroid Artery and it’s Relation with External Laryngeal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/483 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Thyroid gland is a highly vascular gland placed anteriorly in the neck, extending from the level of fifth cervical vertebra to first thoracic vertebra.The lobes of gland are conical. Their apices diverge laterally to the oblique line on the lamina of thyroid cartilage, and their bases are at the level of 4th or 5th tracheal ring. The relationship of the superior thyroid artery to the external laryngeal nerve is important to the surgeon during thyroid surgery.The artery and nerve are close to each other higher up but diverge near the gland. Thus in order to avoid injury to the external laryngeal nerve, the superior thyroid artery is ligated as near to the gland as possible. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study was conducted on 50 cadavers of known age and sex in the dissection laboratory, department of anatomy. The cadavers were embalmed through carotid arterial perfusion or femoral arterial perfusion. <strong>Results:</strong> The site of the origin of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was evaluated as it arose from external carotid artery in 66% cases, from carotid bifurcation in 33% cases and from common carotid artery in 1% cases.The site of the origin of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was evaluated as it arose from external carotid artery in 66% cases, from carotid bifurcation in 33% cases and from common carotid artery in 1% cases.The evaluation of distance from upper pole of the thyroid gland to the level where External superior laryngeal nerve turns medially from Superior thyroid artery was found More than 1 cm in 73% cases &amp; Less than 1 cm in 27% cases. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The relationship of superior thyroid artery to external superior laryngeal nerve is very important for surgeons during thyroid surgeries to avoid injuries to above nerves while ligating STA.</p> Anuj Ram Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 6 9 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.2 Osteosarcoma of the Skull: An Unusual Presentation in the Left Parietal-Occipital Region https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/484 <p>Osteosarcoma (OS) is an uncommon primary malignant brain tumor. The incidence of osteosarcoma of the skull is low with an estimated 3.4 cases per million reported per year. We report a case of OS of the skull in an 18-year-old female patient. She had complained of swelling on the left side of the head accompanied with frequent headache and diminished vision in the left eye. An PET-CT of the skull revealed a large 93x90 mm lesion in the left parietal-occipital region. Osteoblastic osteogenic sarcoma of the skull was confirmed histopathologically. The patient received six cycles of Adriamycin and cisplatin; is under close observation and currently doing well. It is empirical to report case reports, specifically unusual cases like OS of the skull. Case reports not only help disseminate knowledge but also help streamline diagnostic and treatment approaches for unusual cases.</p> Aditya Adhav Sagar Bhalerao Rajnish Nagarkar Sirshendu Roy Samadhan Pawar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 10 11 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.3 Measurement of Popliteal Artery Diameter: A Cadavaric Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/486 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The popliteal artery is the branches off from the femoral artery. It is located in the knee towards the back of the legs. The clinicians and radiologists dealing with the popliteal area use description of branching pattern of the popliteal artery, in which it first gives rise to anterior tibial artery followed by the tibial peroneal trunk, which then terminates by dividing into the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. As popliteal artery is one of the most common sites for aneurysm formation, the knowledge of the normal popliteal artery diameter is essential to determine the relevance of popliteal dilatations. Objective: Considering the clinical importance of diameter of popliteal artery, this study was undertaken to note the internal diameter of popliteal artery. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present study was conducted on 50 specimen embedded in 10% formalin from the department of Anatomy of tertiary care hospital &amp; medical college. Cadavers which had gross pathological deformities in its lower limbs were excluded from the study. All the cadavers were adult males and females. <strong>Results:</strong> This study states right popliteal arteries are slightly larger (4.9 ± 0.7 mm) as compare to left popliteal artery (4.8± 0.5 mm). This study also reconfirm popliteal arteries of men are slightly larger than that of female (4.9 ± 0.7 mm), (4.6± 0.9 mm) and left popliteal artery (4.8± 0.5 mm), (4.6± 0.7 mm) respectively. On the other hand terminal part its diameter is slightly larger in male (4.5 ± 0.6 mm) as compare to female (4.3 ± 0.5 mm). This study also shows terminal end of left popliteal arteries (3.8 ± 0.7 mm) are smaller than right popliteal arteries (4.3 ± 0.5 mm). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study was done in a small cadaveric sample. In our prospective different live and cadaveric study will be helpful for vascular surgeons, radiologists. The variation in the measurement of our study compare to other study may be due to the difference in live and cadaveric spacemen or due to the method of measurement. Therefore, we suggest before making any decision study on much larger sample should be consider.</p> Sanjay Singh Saroj Kumar Md. Tabrej Alam Kamil Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 12 15 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.4 Histological Structure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament - Review https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/487 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the commonly injured ligaments of the knee joint due to sports activities. Because of the poor healing capacity of the ACL, surgical treatment for ACL injuries was followed for many years. Therefore, understanding the structural knowledge of the ACL will help in reproduce the native ACL. Objectives: To improve the histological knowledge of ACL and to understand the valuation of histology of ACL attachment to the bone. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: PubMed and Google search was used as a search engine to collect the concerned articles that describing the histology of ACL. The key words were ACL, histology, Ultrastructure. <strong>Results:</strong> Ultrastructure of ACL observed from proximal to distal attachments showed the more complicated and complex arrangement of collagen bundles with interspersed cells in between. Ultrastructure of ACL also should be borne in mind before preparing ACL grafts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> ACL has complex histological structure. It is essential to consider the details of the ACL histological structure in ACL reconstruction surgeries to restore its full functionality. This review may be useful as a reference to investigate the mechanical properties of ACL footprint.</p> Jahira Banu Yogesh Sontakke Dharmaraj Tamgire Suma H Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 16 20 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.5 Evaluation of Gender in Living Male and Female Children Through the Measurement of Sternum Bone in the Population of Uttar Pradesh https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/488 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sex evaluation from the skeletal remains is of very much important for medicolegal aspects in the field of medical science. On the basis of previous researcher, I have been planned to verify the existrnal data and establish them in reference to population in and around Lucknow. With the help of this study we were distinguishes the male and female sternum bone in children. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The technique described by Ashley GT -1956b was used for measurement of sternum. Each linear measurement has been taken thrice on the anatomical position of the sternum using Mitutoyo-digital vernier calipers to the nearest millimeter with precision of 0.01 mm. <strong>Results:</strong> Discussion: The previous researchers told that the sternum has distinguished in different zone of India, and it is shorter than European country. Our findings of manubrium were 49.45±3.45 mm for male and 44.47± 5.79 mm for female children respectively. The study done by previous researcher was provided full support to our present finding. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The comparison of mean length of manubrium, mesosternum and sternum between 2 to 15 yrs, female and male sternum between two groups, significantly different and higher length of manubrium, mesosternum and sternum in males as compared to females children.</p> S V Sharma A K Pankaj Navneet Kumar Mr Nilesh H B Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 21 24 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.6 Corrosion Cast- Comparison of Different Techniques and Materials Used in Corrosion Casting https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/489 <p>In medical terms, cast refers to the replica obtained after filling a luminal structure with resin to reproduce its morphology. It can be accomplished by removing the soft tissue around it, termed corrosion or maceration. Corrosion casts form very important material in learning morphology of various structures like- vascular tree, tracheobronchial tree, luminal casts of various organs. Vascular casts have been studied using scanning electron microscopy, which has contributed to understanding the biological processes. If the specimen is fixed after resin injection, it can be used for surgical training, medical teaching etc. In the present review, the authors have tried to analyse the technical aspects of corrosion casting. We have also added note on polyurethane foam cast of coronary vessels, which was carried out in our laboratory.</p> Suma H Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 25 30 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.7 Origin of Right Coronary Artery (RCA): A Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Coronary Angiographic (CA) Study in North India https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/588 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Several clinical and pathological scenarios like hemodynamic procedures, cardiac surgery in heart trauma and arrhythmias from coronary occlusive disease management have importance of variations in the origin of Right Coronary Artery (RCA). The RCA presents a wide spectrum of morphological expressions regarding its sites of origin, course, branches, length, size and termination. RCA usually arises from the Anterior Aortic Sinus (AAS) and traverses through the right atrio-ventricular (AV) groove. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: In the present study, Computed Tomographic (CT) coronary angiograms of 50 routine subjects of different age groups who came to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, King George’s Medical University UP, Lucknow in the year 2010- 2011 with known or suspected coronary artery disease, were analyzed. Coronary angiography (CA) was performed on a 64 slice Multidetector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) scanner, using retrospective electrocardiographic (ECG) gating. The incidence of different sites of origin of RCA was assessed. <strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, RCA originated from Anterior Aortic Sinus (AAS) in 47 (94%) subjects. In 3 (6%) subjects, RCA showed anomalous origin from Left Posterior Aortic Sinus (LPAS). These three subjects were males [3(9.38%)]. In all the subjects, the course of RCA was normal except three males having origin of RCA from LPAS. In these three males, the proximal part of RCA coursed between Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) and aorta. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most common site for origin of RCA was AAS. Anomalous origin of RCA was seen only from LPAS. Anomalous origin of RCA was seen only in male subjects. In all subjects having anomalous origin of RCA from LPAS, RCA coursed between pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta.</p> Sushma Tomar P K Sharma Punita Manik Manoj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 5 1 31 39 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.8 Histomorphometric Analysis of Umbilical Arteries in Preeclampsia https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/609 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Preeclampsia is a pregnancy‑related hypertensive disorder complicated with placental hypoxia and resistance. The hypoxia and hypertension can induce changes in the morphometric parameters of umbilical cord and its vessels that can further affect the blood flow to the fetus. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Umbilical cords were collected from new-borns of preeclamptic and normal mothers, length and diameter were measured. Further, cords were processed for histological examination. The diameter, luminal area and wall thickness of umbilical arteries were measured. <strong>Results:</strong> A shorter and narrower cord was observed in preeclampsia. The umbilical arteries in preeclamptic cases were dilated, whereas statistically significant changes were not observed in the thickness of wall. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dilated umbilical arteries would be an adaptation to the affected babies so as to ensure reduced resistance for fetal circulation.</p> Saleena N Ali Suma H Y Yogesh Ashok Sontakke Dilip Kumar Maurya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 40 42 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.9 Morphological Variations of the Thyroid Gland in the North Indians: A Cadaveric Study with its Clinical Relevance https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/610 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The morphological variations of the thyroid gland are not an uncommon phenomenon and may due to embryological remnant or non-specific development of different parts of it. Prior anatomical knowledge of these variations is of immense importance to prevent catastrophies during or after thyroid surgeries. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence of morphological variations of the thyroid glands in north Indian cadavers. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study was conducted on 50 formalin embalmed adult human cadavers aging between 40–65 years, of which 40 were males and 10 were females. Thyroid glands were dissected and examined properly for the presence of pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroidae, accessory thyroid tissue and complete absence of isthmus. <strong>Results: </strong>The pyramidal lobe was present in 9 (18%) and frequently arising from the right side of the isthmus. LGT was found in 7 (14%) and almost in all cases it was extending from the apex of the pyramidal lobe to the hyoid bone. Only 2 (4%) cadavers did not show an isthmus while accessory thyroid tissue was found only in one case. Morphological variations were more common in females than in males and the difference was statistically significant (p value&lt;0.05). The means of all measured parameters were higher in female than in male but these gender differences were not significant (p&gt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Morphological variation of the thyroid gland is a common phenomenon, particularly in female. Hence it requires proper detection and documentation prior to any thyroid surgery, so that iatrogenic catastrophies can be avoided.</p> Apurba Patra Arun Sharma Vishal Malhotra Vimal Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 43 48 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.10 Haematological and Histopathological Effects of Mosquito Coil Smoke on Kidney-An Experimental study on Albino Rat. https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/611 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Mosquitoes have long been identified as the main vectors of many human and animal diseases like West Nile fever, malaria, dengue, etc. Mosquito coils are the most preferred mosquito repellent products used especially in low-income communities, due to cheap price. The most common active ingredients in mosquito coils pyrethroids, are known to cause nephrotoxicity and,haematoxicity. However substantial data is lacking on the effects of mosquito coils containing d-trans allethrin. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: In this study we report the histological and haematological effects of&nbsp; smoke from&nbsp; such coil on albino rat (Wistar). The study was performed on Thirty albino rats divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, E) of six animals each. Control group A we left unexposed to coil smoke while rest (B-E) were exposed for 4, 6,8,10 weeks respectively. <strong>Results: </strong>We observed a statistically significant increase in the levels of serum&nbsp; urea and creatinine&nbsp; in experimental groups C, D and E. Levels of serum sodium and potassium remained unaffected in the experimental animals. Histopathological studies on kidneys revealed generalised degenerative changes proportional to quantity of coil smoke exposure. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> General human masses should be made aware about such possible hazards and adequate measures should be taken to ensure minimal exposure to coil smoke during domestic use.</p> Masooma Syed Sheikh Tousia Kamaldeep Singh Balowria Nusrat Jabeen Nafis Ahmad Faruqi Arshi Beg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 49 53 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.11 Histopathological and Haematological Effects of Mosquito Coil Smoke on Lungs - An Experimental Study on Albino Rats https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/612 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Mosquito coils are the most preferred anti-mosquito products in many households of Asian countries like India. Short-term exposure to allethrin has been reported to cause toxic effects on respiratory system. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Thirty albino rats were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of six animals each. Except group A (Control) rest (Group B-E) were exposed to mosquito coil smoke for 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks respectively. Blood from all the animals was processed to estimate TLC (Total leucocyte count) and results thus attained were analysed using one-way ANOVA test. Rats were sacrificed to procure lung tissue, which was processed by paraffin embedding to obtain haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections. <strong>Results: </strong>There was significant increase (p value, 0.001) in TLC in all experimental groups compared to control ones. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Degenerative changes were obtained in lung tissue of all experimental rats with maximum effect in group Adequate measures should be taken to ensure minimal exposure to coil smoke during domestic use.</p> Masooma Syed Kamaldeep Singh Balowria Sheikh Tousia Nusrat Jabeen Nafis Ahmad Faruqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 54 58 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.12 Diameters of Perikarya in Different Regions of Rat Central Nervous System after Streptomycin and Kanamycin Intoxication https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/613 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Streptomycin and Kanamycin, an aminoglycosidic antibiotic, is known to destroy the ventral cochlear nuclei of brainstem in man. Ototoxicity is well known side effect of kanamycin, the effect on central nervous system in general and central auditory pathway in particular is still unclear. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Thirty albino rats were divided into three groups I, II and III of ten animals each. Group III was control. Group I and II received Streptomycin (30mg/Kg body weight) and kanamycin (400mg/kg body weight) intramuscular injections, daily for 3 weeks. Paraffin embedded sections of cerebellum, spinal cord, dorsal cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus nucleus and auditory cortex were stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains and perikarya measured using slide and ocular micrometres. <strong>Results: </strong>Size of cerebellar Purkinje cells increased significantly in control rats for streptomycin and kanamycin intoxicated animals respectively. Ventral horn cells of spinal cord are affected highly significantly only by streptomycin. Vestibular nucleus also showed similar results i.e. neuronal body. Neurons of dorsal cochlear nucleus is affected significantly by both the drugs i.e. streptomycin and kanamycin. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Streptomycin causes an increase in diameter of auditory cortical cells on other hand kanamycin led to highly significant decrement in size of cells of same region. Preferential affinity and differential effects were noticed. The latter throws some clues about mechanism of action.</p> Rati Tandon Prerna Gupta Masooma Syed Nafis Ahmad Faruqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 59 61 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.13 The Morphology and Clinical Considerations of Mucosal Folds of Cystic Duct https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/614 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The cystic duct connects the gallbladder to the extra hepatic bile duct. In its endoluminal surface are the mucosal folds which are characteristic of the duct. Aim:-The aim was to study the length and mid-length diameter of the cystic duct and the mucosal folds of its endoluminal surface with respect to their number, location, and orientation. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study was carried out in the Anatomy Department of Parul Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vadodara, on 40 specimens of 10% formalin fixed&nbsp; human cystic ducts, from 2015 to 2018, after obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The cystic duct was isolated and its lumen was exposed by an incision parallel to its length to study the folds. &nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> The length of the cystic duct was between 0.4 to 4.2 cm, and the diameter was between 0.2-0.6cm. The mucosal folds were present in 38(95%) specimens and were absent in two (5%). The maximum number of mucosal folds present in a specimen was eleven. In the 25 (62. 5%) specimens they spanned the entire length and in 13(32.5%) they were present only in the proximal part. Their disposition was either oblique, transverse interdigitating, combination type or saccular. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It gives insight into the internal morphology of the cystic duct. Various types of mucosal folds have been described, the knowledge of which will be important to the laparoscopic surgeons during various interventional approaches undertaken in this region.</p> Jaba Rajguru Mitesh R. Dave Pratik N. Mistry ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 62 67 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.14 A Study on Variations of Nutrient Foramen of Fibula in Saurashtra Region with its Clinical Relevance https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/620 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Nutrient foramen is an opening into shaft of fibula which gives passage to the blood vessels of medullary cavity. The knowledge of nutrient foramen is important in surgical procedures like bone grafting and more recently in microsurgical vascularized bone transplantation. Objective: To determine the number, location and direction of nutrient foramen and whether the nutrient foramens obey the rule of ossification, that is directed away from the growing end of the bone or not. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present study consisted of 150 (75 right and 75 left) dried fibula bones excluding any fracture or pathological abnormalities Number and direction of nutrient foramen was observed in each fibula. Location of nutrient foramen in relation with surfaces and zones of fibula was determined. <strong>Results:</strong> It has been observed that 96.67% of the fibula had a single nutrient foramen, 3.33% double foramen and no bone had 0 nutrient foramen. It was concluded that 98.71% of the nutrient foramina were present on the posterior surface and 1.29 % on medial crest. It was also concluded that most (98.06%) of the foramina present in the zone II followed by zone III (1.29%) then by zone I (0.65%). All foramina were directed toward the upper end of fibula. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> By knowing the number and location of the nutrient foramina in fibula would be useful in preventing intra-operative injury of nutrient artery during orthopedic, plastic and reconstructive surgery and will also be relevant in medico legal practice.</p> Vraj J Akbari Sanjay R Chavda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 68 70 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.15 Study of Nasal Height for Sexual Dimorhism in 18-30 Years age Group People in Bhavanagr City of Gujarat https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/621 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Nasal parameters are important for estimation of stature, gender identification and age estimation. Commonly used Nasal parameters are Nasal height, Nasal breadth and Nasal width; Nasal height is one of the most reliable of which. Previous studies have reported racial differences and geographical variation in Nasal height along with importance in gender differentiation. This study was conducted with aim to measure Nasal heights of Bhavangar city population and check for Nasal height differences among males and females. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 510 subjects (243 male and 267 female) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study, conducted at Government Medical College, Bhavanagar in 2011 after institutional ethical committee approval. Age group of the subjects enrolled in the study was 18 to 30 years. Nasal height was measured with the help of sliding caliper after informed and written consent of the subject. The data was compiled and analyzed with standard statistical methods by Microsoft excel and Epiinfo 7.0TM software. <strong>Results:</strong> Difference in mean nasal height of Males (46.241 ± 3.518 mm) and females (43.799 ± 3.419) was statistically significant at 95% confidence interval (p value = 0.0001). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nasal height can be used as one of the parameters for gender determination of the subject.</p> Sapana B. Shah Sanjay Chavada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 71 73 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.16 Determination of Sex from Epicondylar Breadth of Femur https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/618 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sex determination from skeletal remains allows one to narrow the search in individual identification. As the femur shows 75% Variation between individuals, it has been useful for sex determination. There are many possible femoral measurements, but the Epicondylar breadth is routinely considered to be useful for sexing individuals. To date, nothing has been published on other measurements of distal femur, which may be useful if the bone is fragmented, and only lower part of bone is available. This study is an attempt to evaluate sex determination from distal femora of Indian origin. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: For this study total 208 normal dry human femur bones of known sex were studied, which were collected from various medical colleges of Gujarat. For measurement of Epicondylar breadth of femur, Digital sliding vernier caliper was used. <strong>Results:</strong> The discriminant function equation for sex determination from Epicondylar Breadth (EB) of femur is:-Y = 0.143 * EB + (-8.334) If Y is &lt; 0 then the sex of the bone is Female and if Y is &gt; 0 then the sex of the bone is Male. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> With the use of discriminant function score, 87% of femur samples are correctly predicted about sex. The results of this study is particularly useful in a case for sex determination in which the skeletal remains of an individual are incomplete or damaged and thus more accurate bones such as the pelvis or cranium are absent.</p> Rakesh K. Vora Shailesh M. Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 74 78 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.17 Study of Nutrient Foramina of Human Radii of Saurashtra Region https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/619 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In long bones including radius, surface opening of nutrient canal is known as nutrient foramen, which transmits nutrient artery to supply cortical bone and medullary cavity. Topographical information about nutrient foramen is very crucial during various orthopedic surgical procedures. Objective: Present study was conducted to study number of nutrient foramina, its location and direction in relation to growing end of bone and to calculate foraminal index of human radius. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: In present study 63(31 right and 32 left sided) radii bone of unknown age and sex were studied. Only fully intact bone without any disease were included. Surface location and direction of nutrient foramina were recorded. Total length of radius was measured with osteomatric board. Distance of nutrient foramen from proximal end was measured with digital vernier caliper. And foraminal index was calculated. All data was tabulated and analyzed statistically. <strong>Results:</strong> All radii had single nutrient foramen. Majority (82.54%) of the nutrient foramina were detected on the anterior surface, 14.29% were on posterior surface and only two bone have nutrient foramen on other surface. Zone I contained 30.16% and Zone II contained 66.67% and Zone III contained 3.17% foramina.&nbsp; Direction of all foramina were towards upper end of radius except two bones. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Almost all the results coincided with previous studies from different geographical regions. Thorough knowledge of morphology of nutrient foramina is necessary for preserving circulation. Because it is very crucial in bone grafting, fracture healing, joint replacement therapy and vascularized bone micro surgeries.</p> V. J. Akbari Sanjay Chavda Ashish Rathva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 5 1 79 81 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.18 A Comparative Study of Dermatoglyphic Patterns of Fingers in Normal Children and In Children with Congenital Heart Diseases https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/659 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dermatoglyphics is the study of epidermal ridges and their configurations on the palmar and the plantar regions. Currently dermatoglyphics is being used as a tool in the field of biology, anthropology, genetics and medicine to explain, compare and to predict the occurrence of bio medical events. Finger prints are usually categorized into three basic groups namely arches (60-65%), loops (30-35%) and whorls (5%). Any prenatal insult during this critical period of embryogenesis/organ system development should have an influence on the dermatoglyphic patterns.4Congenital heart defects are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which etiology, importance of genetic as well as environmental factors have been recognized. These defects show a familial tendency but no Mendelian pattern of inheritance has been described. In the present study, finger dermatoglyphic patterns in congenital heart diseases are studied and compared with controls. <strong>Subjects and methods:</strong> Dermatoglyphics are studied in 100 children with congenital heart diseases, both males and females. The dermatoglyphic patterns of palms and fingers were studied and the information was recorded systematically and statistically analyzed. <strong>Results:</strong> Ventricular septal defects (VSD) form the majority in the both the males (50%) and females (34.8%) in the congenital heart diseases group, followed by Atrial septal defects (ASD) in both males (20.4%) and females (39.1%). In both, the cases and controls group, it is found that the majority are loops followed by whorls and then the arches. The increase in whorls in congenital heart diseases is statistically significant with p value &lt; 0.001. Comparing the cases with controls it is found that the Whorls (p &lt; 0.001) and the loops (p &lt;0.001) were statistically significant, it means that the Whorls are more frequently found in congenital heart diseases than the controls. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Congenital heart diseases are associated with abnormal dermatoglyphic patterns. Increased number of Whorls and decreased number of Arches are seen in the congenital heart disease children. The above fingerprint pattren may help as a diagnostic aid in diagnosis of congenital heart diseases in children. They may also help in distinguishing congenital heart diseases from the functional and acquired heart diseases. A larger sample study is required to ascertain the value of this dermatoglyphic parameter as a diagnostic tool in congenital heart diseases in children.</p> Shivaleela C Nandyal V B Lakshmiprabha S Kumar G V ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-25 2019-05-25 5 1 82 86 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.19 A Report on Bilaterally Elongated Superior Cervical Ganglion https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/660 <p>Superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the largest of the three cervical sympathetic ganglia, is formed by the fusion of first four cervical ganglia. Bilaterally elongated superior cervical ganglion was observed in a female cadaver during dissection. On the right side, it was 63.74 mm long and 5.75 mm wide and on the left side, it was 62.88 mm and 5.84 mm respectively. Histological analysis of the ganglion done with toluidine blue staining confirmed the structure of sympathetic ganglion. Superior cervical ganglion is the preferred ganglion for sympathetic block in conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, atypical facial pain,and post-herpetic neuralgia. Even though superior cervical ganglion has been reported to be at the safest location, thetension of sympathetic trunk while retracting the carotid sheath during surgeries might result in Horner’s syndrome. Furthermore, a large ganglion may also be confused with deep cervical lymph nodes or retropharyngeal mass during imaging studies. Understanding the variant anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion might serve as a guide for imaging studies, cervical spine surgeries,and sympathetic block.</p> Lavanya Rajmohan Sulochana Sakthivel Suman Verma Aravindhan Kishore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-25 2019-05-25 5 1 87 89 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.20 Correlation of Maternal Age with Prevalence of Chromosomal Anomalies in Patients of Anorectal Malformation https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/661 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Aims: To identify the Anorectal malformations patients in North Indian region and then study the karyotype of these patients to evaluate cytogenetic aberrations and then correlate it with the maternal age. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Forty eight patients of anorectal malformation were selected from Department of Paediatric Surgery, KGMU, UP, Lucknow. Blood samples were collected and their cytogenetic study was done in the Department of Anatomy, KGMU-U.P, Lucknow. Karyotypes obtained were further analysed. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 48 children enrolled in the study, karyogram could be obtained for 45 cases (93.75%). Maternal age at the time of birth of the child was &lt;30 years in 91.1% cases. There were only 8.9% women who were &gt;30 years of age at the time of birth of the child. However, proportion of those with anomalies was significantly higher in &gt;30 years age group (75%) as compared to that in &lt;30 years age group (2.4%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although low maternal age was found most commonly, but number of cases with chromosomal anomalies was reported more in &gt;30 years of age, which could be due to increased risk of congenital anomalies and malformations with advanced age.</p> Dewanshi Mishra Rakesh Kumar Verma Archana Rani Garima Sehgal Anushree Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-25 2019-05-25 5 1 90 92 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.21 Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma - A Case Report https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/662 <p>Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is an uncommon tumor that originates from follicular dendritic cells. The identification and diagnosis of FDCS is not as easy as it has close histological resemblance with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sarcoma, melanoma, undifferentiated carcinomas, melanoma, and other dendritic or histiocytic cell disease. The definite diagnosis of FDCS can be established with the help of immunohistochemical investigation coupled with imaging modalities such as positron-emission tomography and computed tomography. We present a case of an elderly woman with a history of follicular dendritic tumor. The patient was primarily treated with CHOP chemotherapy in a different hospital. Upon initial investigation in our institution, disease progression was observed. The patient was treated with GEMTAX chemotherapy. The patient showed a partial response to therapy after three cycles of GEMTAX. However, disease progression was observed after six cycles of GEMTAX. The patient was switched to ESHAP, wherein after three cycles partial response to therapy was observed as per PET-CT scans. Despite the use of all three chemotherapy regimens, recurrence was observed. Systemic chemotherapy should be reserved for patients who failed in primary treatment or those with metastatic disease. However, multisite clinical trials should be developed to rationalize optimal treatment strategies for this uncommon disease.</p> Sagar Ramesh Bhalerao Aditya Shirish Adhav Rajnish Vasant Nagarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-25 2019-05-25 5 1 93 95 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.22 Anthropometric Relation of Neck and Waist Circumference in Overweight and Obese Nigerian Subjects: Implication for the Fashion Industry https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/663 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the local tailoring industries in Nigeria, it is generally assumed that the waist circumference is twice the neck circumference. Whether this is true for obese and overweight people is unknown.&nbsp; Objective: This study investigated the anthropometric relationship of the neck circumference to the waist circumference in overweight and obese people and its use in the clothing industry. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A sample size of 557 volunteers between 18 to 50 years was recruited for the study from the three campuses of the University of Port Harcourt. 391 were overweight (males=218, females=173) and 166 were obese (males=63, females=103). The neck and waist circumferences of volunteers were taken at the upper neck circumference (UNC), middle neck circumference (MNC), lower neck circumference (LNC) and upper waist circumference (UWC), middle waist circumference (MWC) and lower waist circumference (LWC) respectively. The Body Mass Index of the participants were determined after their weights and heights were measured to enable us categorize them into overweight and obese. The data obtained were analyzed with the aid of Microsoft Excel statistical tools. <strong>Results:</strong> Overweight males had UNC =37.83cm, UWC =83.69cm, MNC =37.72cm; MWC=85.79cm, LNC =38.43cm, LWC =86.37cm. Overweight females had UNC =33.64cm, UWC=78.02cm, MNC =33.64cm, MWC= 83.09cm, LNC =34.71cm, LWC=83.09cm. Obese males had UNC =40.15cm, UWC=93.87cm, MNC =40.12cm, MWC= 97.95cm, LNC =40.85cm, LWC =97.82cm. Obese females had UNC =35.07cm, UWC =90.86cm, MNC= 35.29cm, MWC =97.29cm, LNC =36.01cm, LWC =100.72cm. Pearson’s correlations(r) of the different regions of the neck and waist for overweight and obese subjects were determined. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The correlation between the neck and waist circumference is weak in both overweight and obese. No subject has a waist circumference that is exactly twice the neck circumference.&nbsp; Estimation of waist circumference from the neck circumference will result in clothes that are not fitted.</p> Loveday. E Oghenemavwe Clinton S.D Orupabo Zudonu O. Onisoman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-25 2019-05-25 5 1 96 99 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.23 Histopathological and Histomorphometric Studies on the Effects of Olanzapine on Vas Deferens and Urinary Bladder: An Experimental Study in Albino Rats. https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/679 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Olanzapine an atypical anti-psychotic drug is widely used in a number of disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Olanzipine shows affinity for a number of muscarinic, dopaminergic and histaminic receptors in the body due to which its effects can be seen on a number of organs in the body. The present study was conducted to see the adverse effects of the drug on the histology of urinary bladder and vas deference as data is not availabe on these organs. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Twelve male albino rats divided into equal number of experimental and control groups i.e. 6 rats each. Olanzapine was injected intraperitoneally in experimental rats at a dose of 4mg/kg for 6 weeks daily. <strong>Results: </strong>Control group received same volume of normal saline, daily, intraperitoneally for the same period. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Histopathological and histomorphometric changes conformed degeneration in urinary bladder &amp; vas deferens.</p> Waqar Akram Masooma Syed Nafis Ahmad Faruqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 5 1 100 103 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.24 Histopathologcal Effects of Methotrexate on Rat Kidney –An Experimental Study on Wistar Albino Rats. https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/681 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Methotrexate, a folic acid antagonist is used as a first line drug for the treatment of a number of malignancies and immune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Due to hepatoxicity its dose needs to be monitored and sometimes it has to be stopped. In the present study we intend to do a detailed histopathological investigation after methotrexate toxicity on the relatively neglected organ i.e. kidney of rat. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Albino rats were divided into four groups (1, 2, 3, and 4) of six animals each. Control group 1 was given distilled water whereas experimental groups 2, 3, and 4 were given low, therapeutic and high doses of methotrexate orally for 28 days. <strong>Results: </strong>The results showed congestion and infiltration of the glomeruli and interstitial edema and tubular degeneration which were dose dependent. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The degenerative changes necessitate extra precautions to be taken while using drug for prolonged period. The study merits due to great social impact.</p> Kamaldeep Singh Balowria Masooma Syed Sheikh Tousia Nafis Ahmad Faruqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 5 1 104 107 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.25 Morphological Study of the Coronoid Process of Mandible in North Indian Population https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/709 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Morphological variations in coronoid process are produced by the corresponding developmental variations. The present study was conducted to assess morphological variations of coronoid process of mandible. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present study was conducted in the department of Anatomy. It comprised of 100 subjects of both genders. All subjects were subjected to panoramic radiograph. The different shapes of coronoid process were compared. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 100 subjects males were 50 and females were 50. Triangular shape coronoid process was seen in 32 males and 36 females, hook shaped in 14 males and 8 females and rounded shaped in 4 males and 6 females. The difference was non- significant (P&gt; 0.05). On left side triangular shape was seen in 33 and 35 on right side, hook form was seen in 10 in left side and 7 in right side and rounded was seen 7 in left side and 8 in right side. The difference was non-significant (P&gt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Authors found variation in shape of coronoid process. Most common type was triangular followed by hook variety.</p> Anamika Gaharwar Vineeta Tewari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-15 2019-06-15 5 1 108 111 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.26 Anomalies of Arch of Aorta and Its Branches - Computed Tomography Angiography Study. https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/711 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The arch of aorta is a curved structure between the ascending aorta and&nbsp;&nbsp; the descending aorta.Three branches arise from the superior aspect of the arch- Brachiocephalic trunk, Left common carotid artery and Left subclavian artery. The aortic arch and its branches are well known for their anomalies which are important causes of cardio-vascular morbidity and mortality. The present study contribute for awareness and alertness regarding their incidence and prevalence for radiologists, cardiologists and endo-thoracic surgeons and to prevent complications during therapeutic procedures. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 500 CTA images were studied retrospectively from the patients who underwent chest and neck CTA for different reasons. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 500 patients 474 (94.8%) patients had the classical branching pattern with left sided aorta. Six types of anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches were found in 26 (5.2%) patients. The most common anatomical variant was a common trunk for Brachiocephalic trunk and Left Common Carotid artery (bovine arch) found in 9 (1.8%) patients. In five (1%) patients, Left Vertebral Artery arises directly from the arch of aorta between left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery.&nbsp; Five (1%) patients had Right sided arch of aorta. Aberrant Right subclavian artery was found in four (0.8%) patients. Double arch in 2 (0.4%) cases and in one (0.2%) patient, we observed five branches arising directly from the arch, they are Right Common Carotid artery, Left Common Carotid artery, Left Vertebral artery, Left Subclavian artery and Aberrant Right Subclavian artery. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>With the ever increasing day to day advancements in complex endovascular interventions for the aorta and other great vessels of head and neck regions, early identification of aortic arch variant anatomy is of clinical significance to the radiologists and endovascular surgeons.</p> G.N. Charitha L. Vasanthi K. Srinidhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-15 2019-06-15 5 1 112 115 Sexual Dimorphism of Femur and its Clinical Significance https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/712 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Assessment of human sex from skeletal remains plays a key role in anthropological and medico legal studies. Hence this study was taken to assess the sex form an isolated bone i.e. femur, with as far as possible minimal parameters to ascertain the sex. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A study was conducted with 100 non pathological femora. (50male, 50 females ) in different age groups&nbsp; of known sex. The present study was to determine the sex by using 5 parameters i.e&nbsp; Maximum length, Head vertical diameter, Transverse head diameter, Proximal breadth, Distal breadth of the femur has been taken because it gives some useful data in medico legal cases, When only the remains of femur bone were&nbsp; left in deceased individuals. The measurements of femur bone were taken with the help of osteometric board and Vernier calliper. <strong>Results:</strong> The readings were noticed. The readings were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was noticed that all the studied parameters were greater in males than in females. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study on the determination of sex of femora will be more reliable basis for the sex determination because it shows the values in this geographical region. This is believed to be more useful in the investigative procedures in the Forensic Medicine and also in the field of orthopaedics.</p> Ranzeetha. D. K. V. Pavana Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-15 2019-06-15 5 1 116 121 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.28 An Anatomical study of Cleft hand in North – East population of Assam https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/715 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cleft hand or Ectrodactyly or Split Hand is a rare form of congenital hand disorder in which there is deficiancy of one or more central rays of the hand. The hand presents with a V-shaped gap situated in the centre of the palm. The condition may occur alone or maybe associated with anomalies of foot, syndactly, polydactyly, triphalangeal thumb, transverse bones in the hand or maybe part of Ectrodactyly Ectodermal dysplasia Cleft (ECC) Syndrome. <strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> To find out the sex ratio and incidence of laterality (unilateral or bilateral) of cleft hand in North East population of Assam. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study included 31 children between age group of 3 years to 8 years with hand deformities who were brought to the Plastic Surgery Department, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati for aesthetic correction within a time span of 2 years. Only those cases who had central defects of hand were included &amp; those with other syndromic anomalies were excluded. For this detailed clinical and radiological examination was done to evaluate the extent of bone or tissue involvement and to find out any syndromic association of the condition. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 31 cases, 10 cases were had Unilateral and 21 cases had Bilateral Cleft Hands. It was seen that out of 31 cases, 22 were males and only 09 were females indicating that male to female ratio of the deformity is 2.44 .Thus, males were more affected than females. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most of the cases presented with absence of the middle finger and central tissue of the affected hand since birth. The embryological basis has been highlighted to throw light into such a catastrophe where both males and females were affected and showed unilateral or bilateral involvement of the hand leading to cosmetic and functional debility. Therefore, the study revealed that males were more affected than females and bilateral involvement of the hands were common than unilateral involvement.</p> Bandita Tatwade Monali Hiwarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-17 2019-06-17 5 1 122 125 10.21276/aanat.2019.5.1.29