Academia Anatomica International <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Academia Anatomica International 2617-5207 Extraperitoneal (RT) Renal Ectopia – Asymptomatic Case Report <p>Renal ectopia anatomically results from altered migration of kidneys to their normal position in the lumbar region. Few case reports have been reported in literature. Visceral-tissue variation was in form of quadratus lumborum and psoas major in place of the RT kidney. A 21 year old female with positive HCG (pregnancy test) presented for radiological (ultrasound) confirmation of cyesis, though no sonic evidence of gravidae was observed (&lt; 5 wks GA); confirmatory ectopic kidney was diagnosed on completion of ultrasound. This report underscores the importance of imaging the RT groin and illiac region before surgical intervention thus preventing iatrogenic injury genesis. Treatment of this condition will depend on the functional capacity of the kidney, while nephrectomy is recommended for ‘static’ non-functional kidneys. Non-complicated cases and anatomic variation can be managed conservatively.</p> Afodun Adam Moyosore Edgar Mario Fernandez Buhari Muhammad Olanrewaju Okesina Akeem Ayodeji Quadri Khadijah Kofoworola Ogbe Alex ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 1 3 The Adherence of Musculocutaneous Nerve to Median Nerve Without Piercing Coracobrachialis Muscle – A Case Report <p>The brachial plexus has been reported to show different variations with its formation, course, branches and distribution patterns. During routine dissection in the department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University. One such variation was observed, musculocutaneous nerve arises as usual from the lateral cord but unusually, it does not pierce the coracobrachialis muscle rather, the nerve unites with median nerve and forms common trunk and gives branches to the anterior compartment of the arm in the middle of the arm. Considering clinical importance, recognition and knowledge of such possible anatomical variation will be helpful in the field of neurology, anesthesia and surgery.</p> Dawit Habte Woldeyes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 4 6 Concomitant Occurrence of Fenestrated Internal Jugular Vein and Sub-omohyoid External Jugular Vein: A Case Report <p>External jugular vein is the superficial vein of the neck and is prone to variations. Multiple internal jugular veins are incidental findings that present as a duplication or fenestration. We encountered a unilateral fenestrated internal jugular vein and a bilateral variation in the course of external jugular vein, during a cadaveric dissection. The external jugular vein, after its formation, crossed the sternocleidomastoid muscle and pierced the investing cervical fascia of the posterior triangle. It traversed deep to the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle to enter the subclavian triangle and terminated by draining into the subclavian vein on the left side, and at the angle between the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein on the right side. The fenestrated internal jugular vein on the left side divided into a small medial and large lateral division which reunited at the level of the tendon of omohyoid muscle and drained into the subclavian vein. Only the medial division of the internal jugular vein received tributaries in the neck. Awareness of the multiple variations of the jugular veins would be valuable during surgical approaches to the neck. Present report aims to be useful for vascular surgeons, radiologists, and intensivists as well.</p> Sulochana Sakthivel Suman Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 7 9 A Morphometric Study of Intercondylar Notch of Femur and its Clinical Significance <p><strong>Background:</strong> The lower end of femur has condyles and in between the condyles there is a gap called an intercondylar notch. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is lodged in the notch. The ACL is closely related to the roof of the notch. A narrow notch can result ACL tear .Because of the clinical importance of notch morphology to ACL tears and as not many studies are there in the literature on dry bone; this morphological study on the intercondylar notch of femur was done. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> The study was done on 30 dry femurs (15 right and 15 left femurs). The parameters obtained for the study were the width and depth of the intercondylar notch and the width and depth of the femoral condyles. The study included noting down the shape of the intercondylar notch. The intercondylar notch width index and its depth index were calculated with the above parameters. <strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that the intercondylar notch was having inverted ‘U’ shape morphology in 14 (46.66%) specimens and was inverted ‘V’ shaped in 16 (53.34%) specimens. The mean intercondylar notch width and depth, and width and depth of femoral condyles are 18.49± 11.8, 26.95± 12.7, 73.79±14.5, 56.18±13.7 respectively. P value and statistical significance, the two-tailed P value equals 0.58, 0.39, 0.84, 0.82 respectively for the width and depth of the intercondylar notch and the width and depth of the femoral condyles for the right and left femurs. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. The notch width index and notch depth index are 0.25 and 0.47 respectively in the study. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study has provided additional information on this subject .Bony morphological studies as well as the radiological studies combined with the correlated clinical studies are required to understand the pathology of ACL tears.</p> Prasanna Veera Kumar Attada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 10 13 Relation between Nasal Septal Deviation and Pneumatization of Mastoid Air Cells – A Computerised Tomographic Study <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The environment of middle ear cavity gets regulated mostly by pneumatized mastoid air cell system (MACS). Many theories exist that details the process of pneumatization of this MACS. The nasal septal deviation (NSD) has been shown to be instrumental in influencing pneumatization of paranasal sinuses to varied degrees. The effect of NSD on the pneumatization of MACS remains questionable due to limited literature available. And so this study was done to find the relation between the side of NSD and extent of Pneumatization of MACS on that side by computerized tomographs of Paranasal sinus region. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>120 CT images of paranasal region from archives of radiology department were studied for NSD. The NSD was classified according to the nasal septal angle. The extent of pneumatization of mastoid region was studied and classified. The relation between severe NSD and extent of mastoid pneumatization was noted.<strong> Results: </strong>NSD was found to be right sided in 90% cases studied and 20, 45, 55 were seen belonging to group I, II and III NSD respectively. The mean NSA was found to be 13.5o.&nbsp; Mastoid region was observed to be hypo pneumatized in the side of NSD in 42 cases of group III NSD. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of the study puts forth the need for assessment of NSD and planning possible correction of NSD prior to middle ear and mastoid surgeries for successful results.</p> N. Vinay Kumar T. S. Gugapriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 14 18 Survey of Medical Students to find out their Choice of Paper Types for Examination <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Researchers have paid little attention to evaluating examination methodologies. Both subjective and objective questionnaires are needed to assess overall knowledge and skill of students. To make the papers student friendly, a survey on students’ choice for question papers is of utmost importance. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>122 students were provided with five question paper types having equal marks and given equal time to solve them. At the end of the examination they were asked to grade the paper as per their choice which were tabulated and analyzed.<strong> Results:</strong> Majority of the students gave the first preference to question paper type V (MCQs). As far as the choice of second best paper type was considered, there was discrepancy among good and mediocre students. The former considered paper type I (long essay type) while the latter selected type IV (write in brief) as the best paper type. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> To make the examination process, student friendly, paper having three question paper type i.e. MCQs, long essay type and write in brief should be coined.</p> Noor US Saba Deepshikha Singh Nafis Ahmad Faruqi M. Tariq Zaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 19 20 PDA (Posterior Descending Artery) & Coronary Dominance-A MDCT Coronary Angiographic Analysis of Anatomic Variations and Clinical Importance <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> There is considerable variation in the arterial supply of diaphragmatic surface of the heart. Diaphragmatic myocardial infarction is one of the more common consequences of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of anatomic variants of origin and termination of Posterior Descending Artery (PDA) and to determine the type of coronary dominance in North Indian population. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This prospective study was carried out on 50 routine subjects of different age groups who came to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, King George’s Medical University UP, Lucknow in the year 2010- 2011 with known or suspected coronary artery disease. All the cases were investigated on a 64 slice Multidetector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) scanner, using retrospective Electrocardiographic gating. Endeavour was made to determine the incidence of sites of origin and termination of PDA as well as to determine the type of coronary dominance.<strong> Results:</strong> PDA arose from Right Coronary Artery (RCA) in 39 (78%) cases and from Left Circumflex (LCx) artery in 11(22%) cases. The PDA was found to terminate in the upper 1/4 of Posterior Inter-Ventricular Groove (PIVG) in 18 (36%) cases, in upper 1/2 of PIVG in 19 (38%) cases, in upper 3/4 of PIVG in 10 (20%) cases and at the apex of the heart in 1 (2%) case. None of the female had termination of PDA at the apex. Termination of PDA could not be determined in 2 (4%) cases. Right dominance was seen in 36 (72%) cases, Left dominance in 11 (22%) cases. and Co-dominance in 3 (6%) cases. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Posterior descending artery most commonly terminated after traversing the upper half of posterior inter-ventricular groove. The incidence of left coronary dominance was more in females, it was approximately twice the incidence found in males. Co-dominance was observed only in male subjects.</p> Sushma Tomar Punita Manik P K Sharma Manoj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 4 2 21 27