Academia Anatomica International <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Academia Anatomica International 2617-5207 Morphological Study of Human Placenta in Normal and Hypertensive Pregnancy <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The normal human placenta is a dynamic discoid organ have two surfaces; 1. The chorionic plate facing the foetus (the umbilical cord attached) and 2. The basal plate which about the maternal endometrium. Human placenta has drawn attention as valuable information regardingfoetal&amp; maternal diseases. As placenta guide the intra uterine status of the foetus, study of the placenta will give an accurate condition of the foetal outcome. The aim of this study was to study the morphology of placenta with normal &amp; hypertensive mother. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This present study was carried out in the Dept. of Anatomy, Smt. B. K. Shah Medical institute &amp; Research Centre, in association with the dept. of OB &amp; GY of Dhirajhospital,Piparia, Waghodia, Vadodara district.&nbsp; A total number of 100 (Hundred) placenta (50 - fifty hypertensive mother + 50 - fifty normal mother) with 5cms length of umbilical cord were collected from the Obstetric dept.&nbsp; and relevant medical history (H/O) related&nbsp; of the mother were noted and recorded&nbsp; from the data available in the hospital record section. <strong>Resultsand Conclusion: </strong>In this present study group comprised human placentae from fifty (50) pregnancies with hypertensive mother. The control group comprised fifty (50) human placentae from pregnant mothers with normal blood pressure, without proteinuria and without edema. Among study group most common pregnancy comprisedpre-eclampsia (50%) in this study. The mean age of hypertensive mothers were 25.9 ± 2.5 years in this present study. The mean age of non-hypertensive mother were 25.1 ± 3.21 in this&nbsp; present study.</p> K.M. Parmar Hetal Vaishnani G.V.Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 1 4 Superior Thyroid Artery Arising From the Common Carotid Artery- Potential Source for Unpredicted Intraoperative Bleeding- A Cadaveric Case Report <p>Superior thyroid artery usually arises from the anterior surface of external carotid artery as its first branch. Superior thyroid artery forms an important collateral circulation in case of unilateral occlusion of common carotid artery. Due to the close relation with superior thyroid artery, external laryngeal nerve is prone to injury during thyroid surgery. Superior thyroid artery occasionally arises from the bifurcation of common carotid artery or from the common carotid artery. In the present cadaveric case, during the routine neck dissection of the cadaver in department of anatomy, anomalous origin of the left superior thyroid artery was found. It was originating from the left common carotid artery at a distance of 1.8 cm proximal to the bifurcation of common carotid artery. The length of left superior thyroid artery was 3.2 cm. left Inferior thyroid artery was present and no anomaly was found. Right superior and inferior thyroid arteries were present and no variations were found. Knowledge about these variations in the origin of superior thyroid artery is extremely important in head and neck surgeries to prevent inadvertant injury and avoid torrential bleeding.</p> Balaiya Anitha Shanthini Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 5 7 Anatomical and Morphological Study of Nutrient Foramen in Leg Bones <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Knowledge of position of nutrient foramina of long bones can be useful in certain surgical procedures. Bone ossification, growth and healing depend on its vascularity. Nutrient artery is the main source of blood supply of bone along with periosteal arteries. The topographical knowledge of these foramina is useful in certain operative procedures, in orthopedics as well as in plastic and reconstructive surgeries.AIM: The present study aims to determine the number and position of nutrient foramen of tibia and fibula and to observe direction and obliquity of nutrient foramina. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 100 adult dry bones including 50 tibia and 50 fibula were studied. Nutrient foramina were identified with naked eyes. The obliquity was determined with hypodermic needle. The nutrient foramina location was determined by dividing total bone into segments, the locations were validated by calculating foraminal index. <strong>Results: </strong>It has been observed that 98% (49) tibia has single nutrient foramina, double nutrient foramiana present in 2%of tibia. Most of the nutrient foramina in tibia are present in upper third i.e 65%(33).Foramina index of tibia is 45.05 with standard deviation of 8.29.In fibula single foramen&nbsp; was observed in 46(92%) and double foramina 2(4) and there is no nutrient foramen in 2(4). In 2 fibulae having double nutrient foramen, proximal foramen was directed downward and distal foramen was directed upwards. In 50%(25) nutrient foramina is present in posterior surface,most of nutrient are in middle third 48(96%).mean foraminal index of fibula is 45.05 with standard deviation&nbsp; of 8.29. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study has attempted to put together findings from different studies regarding the number and position&nbsp; and obliquity of nutrient foramina of leg bones .The present study will be useful for orthopedic surgeons during procedures like bone grafting and more recently microsurgical vascularised bone transplantation and new graduates to understand the importance of nutrient foramina of long bones.</p> Donapudi Anusha D. Madhavi Srinidhi Kondepudi Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 8 10 Variations in Division of Sciatic Nerve and its Clinical Relevance: A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The sciatic nerve emerges through the greater sciatic foramen, leaves pelvis and enters into gluteal region by passing below piriformis as a single nerve encompassed by a single epineural sheath. It descends along back of thigh and divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve, usually at superior angle of popliteal fossa. Understanding of variations in the levels of division of sciatic nerve is important for the management of non- discogenic sciatica, posterior hip operations, failed sciatic nerve block. Objective: To study the variations in division of sciatic nerve and to define the level of its exit.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:Seventeen cadavers (34 limbs) fixed in formalin were dissected and studied during routine dissection in department of Anatomy, Mysore Medical College and level of division of sciatic nerve were noted.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 34 limbs, 5 cases (14.7%) were dividing at gluteal region, 2 cases (5.8%) at mid-thigh and 27 cases (79.4%) exited pelvis as a whole nerve and divided at superior angle of popliteal fossa. Type G was most common variation.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>The exit and level of division of sciatic nerve is important for surgeons as there is surgical maneuvering in this region during posterior hip operations and to avoid iatrogenic nerve injury during deep intramuscular injections in gluteal region.</p> Shalom Elsy Philip Dakshayani K.R Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 11 14 Morphometric Analysis of the Human Second Cervical Vertebrae of North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The Aim of the study was to provide the morphometric measurement of the axis vertebrae in North Indian popuulation. Which could be used as clinical tool to determine the feasibility of safe translaminar screw placement. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: 50 dry human axis vertebrae from adult North Indian population were subjected to morphometric measurement using venier caliper. The various dimensions of the axis vertebrae were observed. <strong>Results: </strong>There is high variability in the thickness of the C2 lamina. As compared to western population, the axis bones used in the present study had smaller profiles. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current study showed safety margin for translaminar screw insertion is low.</p> Seema Tabassum N. B. Singh S. K. Karn Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 15 17 Evaluation of Nutrient Foramina of the Dry Adult Human Femur Bone of North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The Femur bone&nbsp; is a highly vascular structure with unique&nbsp; features&nbsp; in&nbsp; its blood supply&nbsp; via numerous foramina&nbsp; located&nbsp; over&nbsp; its&nbsp; different&nbsp; segments,&nbsp; being&nbsp; named&nbsp; as&nbsp; vascular&nbsp; foramina .&nbsp; Among&nbsp; vascular foramina,&nbsp; nutrient&nbsp; foramen&nbsp; is&nbsp; an&nbsp; important one which&nbsp; gives way&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; nutrient&nbsp; artery. <strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the nutrient foramina of the dry adult human femur bone of north Indian population. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present study was undertaken using 50 dry adult human Femur bones&nbsp; of North Indian population. The samples were collected from the Anatomy department of the institute. <strong>Results: </strong>In&nbsp; the present&nbsp; study, among&nbsp; foramina of 50 dry adult human Femora,&nbsp; 31&nbsp; Femora&nbsp; had&nbsp; single&nbsp; nutrient&nbsp; foramen,&nbsp; 18&nbsp; had&nbsp; two&nbsp; nutrient&nbsp; foramina&nbsp; and&nbsp; 1&nbsp; had&nbsp; three&nbsp; nutrient foramina.&nbsp; The medial&nbsp; lip&nbsp; of&nbsp; lineaaspera&nbsp; of&nbsp; Femur&nbsp; depicted&nbsp; the&nbsp; presence&nbsp; of&nbsp; nutrient&nbsp; foramina&nbsp; in majority&nbsp; of bones suggesting the entry zone for nourishment of shaft by perforating arteries. Size of nutrient foramina were ranging from size ≥ 0.55 mm to size ≥ 1.27 mm. Direction of nutrient foramina of all the Femora were directed upwards. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This&nbsp; study may&nbsp; help&nbsp; orthopaedic&nbsp; surgeons&nbsp; in&nbsp; planning&nbsp; the&nbsp; surgical&nbsp; treatment&nbsp; of&nbsp; fracture&nbsp; of Femur&nbsp; with&nbsp; a&nbsp; possible &nbsp;reduction&nbsp; in&nbsp; post-operative&nbsp; complications.&nbsp; Combined&nbsp; periosteal&nbsp; and&nbsp; medullary blood supply&nbsp; to&nbsp; the bone cortex helps&nbsp; to explain&nbsp; the success of&nbsp; intramedullary&nbsp; reaming of&nbsp; long bone&nbsp; fractures particularly in the weight bearing Femur.</p> Ashok Kumar Sing Rekha Kumari Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 18 21 Morphology of Ulnar Nerve and its Variation in North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The ulnar nerve is formed from medial cord of the brachial plexus. It lies medial to axillary and brachial artery as far as middle of humerus, and then pierces the medial&nbsp; inter muscular septum&nbsp; to descend on&nbsp; the&nbsp; anterior&nbsp; face of&nbsp; triceps.&nbsp; Lesions of the associated structures often occur. There is anatomical variations in course of ulnar nerve amongst the races. <strong>Aim:</strong> This study was conducted to analyse the anatomical variation of ulnar nerve in north Indian population.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The study was done on 30 human cadavers at Departments of Anatomy, Darbhanga Medical College and Hospital, Laheriasarai. <strong>Results: </strong>The observations showed that-&nbsp; Ulnar nerve was present in all specimens, and&nbsp; in 97%&nbsp; cases originated from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, at the level of tip of the acromion processes and showed the normal course. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The awareness of&nbsp; these variations along&nbsp; the normal&nbsp; pattern are helpful&nbsp; for&nbsp; the&nbsp; interventional&nbsp; radiologists, orthopaedicians and neurologists in preventing untoward&nbsp; iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve during radiological procedures or operating on fractured patients or diagnostic therapy.</p> Seema Tabassum N. B. Singh S. K. Karn Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 22 24 Estimation of Total Femoral Length from EpicondylarBreadth of Femur <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Stature is an important tool for identification and unique data of human being. Estimation of stature from bones is important for forensic as well as anthropological studies. It is necessary to derive the regression equations from the fragments of femur for medico legal situations. Thus from lower end of femur, estimation of total femoral length can be calculated and then this can be used to get stature by deriving statural formulae. In this study, regression equation for the estimation of total femoral length from epicondylar breadth of femur was computed. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Total 208 normal dry human femur bones which were preserved in antomy department of different medical colleges of Gujarat were studied. Total Femoral Length and Epicondylar Breadth of the Femur bone were measured for this study. <strong>Results: </strong>Epicondylar Breadth of femur displayed the higher correlation (0.828) with Total Femoral Length (TFL) for an individual measurement. As per regression analysis, regression equation is derived which is, B=338.004 + A * 1.390, Where A=Epicondylar Breadth of femur, and B= Total Femoral Length. Then the stature can be estimated by this total Femoral Length by the regression equations or the multiplication factors which are already established by various studies. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The total Femoral Length can be estimated from fragmentary lower end of the femur. The total femoral length can be estimated by the equation presented in this study even in the absence of intact femur bone, and by which the stature can be estimated in sex and population sample.</p> Rakesh K. Vora Satish M. Patel Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 25 28 Correlationbetween Sizeof Pinna& Height of Individualin Uttar Pradesh Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Morphometry ofear &nbsp;is a useful tool for the determination of height &amp; other parameters of individual. The size of the pinna has been measured by some workers for designing hearing aids. No available literature on the study of correlation between the height of an individual and the size of pinna in different age and ethnic groups were available. In this study the height &nbsp;&nbsp;of the individual along with age &nbsp;and size of the pinna was measured in order to find out possible correlation in adult North Indian population. It was anticipated that a possible correlation could help in identification of different ethnic groups. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A study was conducted on 167 subjects including both males and females. The height of the individual was measured with the help of an anthropometric rod. The measurements related to total ear length &amp; ear width and lobule length &amp; width were taken with a digital Vernier Caliper&amp;the height of the individual was measured using stadiometer&amp; transparent graduated ruler. The pearson correlation were used to establish relationship. The data was analysed using SPSS version &amp; p&lt;0.05 was significant. <strong>Results: </strong>There was no difference between the size of the right and left pinna. The length of the pinna was 62.45±4.21 to 62.35±4.12mm and the width was 24.59±2.41 to 24.63±2.41mm. The length of the lobule varied between to 19.21±2.75 to 19.19±2.75mm and the lobule width was 20.14±2.54 to 20.10±2.56mm of both right and left pinna.In present study &nbsp;there was a &nbsp;significant correlation between rt ear length &amp; width with the height of the individual.Similarly Rt lobule length, Lt lobule length &amp; width &nbsp;also has significant correlation with height of individual. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study reveals that the ear morphometry is an additional tool in prediction height from linear ear dimensions.</p> Vidit Dixit Pratishtha Potdar Jagmohan Singh Dhakar Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 29 33 Comparing the Effectiveness of Case Based Learning with Conventional Teaching in Anatomy <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Case based learning (CBL ) is an efficient method of making dry subject like anatomy interesting and student centered. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A group of students of 1<sup>st</sup> MBBs were taught by CBL while the other group was taught by conventional teaching methods and both the groups were assessed for their performance. <strong>Results: </strong>Students had a better understanding of the topic on being taught by CBL. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CBL is a good approach to teach anatomy to medical students as it makes the subject quite lively and clinically oriented.</p> Shema K Nair Neha Rai Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 34 36 Pattern of Smokeless Tobacco Use in Various Age Groups and Its Association withthe Frequency of Micronuclei in Exfoliated Buccal Cells <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells serve as an ideal site for an assessment of genotoxic events. Exfoliative cytology is economical and minimally invasive, its specificity and sensitivity of over 95% makes it an ideal diagnostic tool for mass screening purposes. An assessment of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells gives a fair idea about the genotoxic events occurring in the oral cavity. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A case controlled study was performed on 300 participants. The participants were divided into four broad categories according to their pattern of consumption of smokeless tobacco. Thereafter they were subdivided in to various age groups. The distribution was done equally with 60 participants in each broad category. <strong>Results: </strong>The results in our study show that young adults consume the packaged form of smokeless tobacco while adults above 50 consumed tobacco leaves. Oral lesions were more common in young adults. Cellular alterations in the form of micronuclei were observed to have progressively increased from the control group to tobacco to gutkha users and the frequency of micronuclei was found to be highest in the oral lesions group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Certain lifestyle factors, such as consumption of smokeless tobacco are one of the major factors causing oral lesions. Frequency of micronuclei was assessed in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells. Maximum number of micronuclei was found in the oral lesion group. The age group with maximum cellular alterations was between 30-40 years. Hence we conclude that an assessment of micronuclei can be used as a biomarker for mass screening purposes since it is economical and a non- invasive procedure.</p> Sonia Jaiswal PK Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-10-06 2019-10-06 5 2 37 41 Morphometry of Human Placenta in Natural Conception and Assisted Reproduction with its Clinical Significance <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Placenta is a mirror which reflects the antepartum status of fetus in utero. Our present study aimed to analyse the morphometry of placenta in normal and assisted reproduction.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:30 Placentas of natural conception and 42 placentas of assisted reproduction (18 cases of singleton pregnancies, 12 cases of twin pregnancies) were collected from OG department, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and from private fertility centre in and around Chidambaram immediately after delivery. Morphometric dimensions of placenta like thickness, diameter, area, number of cotyledons were measured placental weight, fetal weight were also measured.<strong>Results:</strong>Placental weight of natural conception was 489 ± 107.84 grams, 316.78 ± 88.24 grams in assisted reproduction. Thickness of placenta was 2.767 ± 0.68 cm in natural conception, 1.78 ± 0.68 cm in assisted reproduction. Number of cotyledons, fetal weight, feto - placental ratio were also reduced in assisted reproduction.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>This is the first study to analyse the morphometric dimensions of placenta in natural conception and in assisted reproduction. Overall there was a reduction in all dimensions of placenta in assisted reproduction. This will be useful for pediatricians who handle the newborns of assisted reproduction.</p> Ananthi V Rajkumar D Muniappan V Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 5 2 42 45 Gross Anatomical Study onthe Skull and Mandible ofthe Wild Boar (SusScrofa) In the Caribbean <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Wild pigs (Susscrofa), which are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago, are sometimes used experimentally, in the field of biomedical science, to model the human anatomy. In particular, the skull, which is very important as ithouses vital organs and foramina,has clinical importance in applying regional anesthesia.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:The present work was conducted on two skulls and mandibles of wild pigsto grossly describe their osteology and foramina. The information garnered can be used for comparative studies of the skulls and mandibles with other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. All of the characteristic features of various standards views of the skulls bones, including dorsal, lateral, caudal, and the lateral, rostral and caudal views of the mandibles as well as the foramina of the skulls and mandibles were described and discussed.<strong>Results:</strong>Each skull was divided into long facial and short cranial regions. The tympanic bulla was small. The supraorbital foramina and grooves were present. The zygomatic process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone formed the large zygomatic arch. The mandible was a paired bone with ossified mandibular symphysis. The dental formula was confirmed and it was 44 teeth.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>The bones and foramina of the skull and mandible were homologue to that of other mammals.</p> Reda Mohamed Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 5 2 46 51 Horseshoe Kidney with Bilateral Duplex Ureters <p>Horseshoe kidney is the most common fusion anomaly of the kidney. Its association with duplex collecting system is a rare entity. Incidence of infections, calculi and nephroblastoma increases in horseshoe kidney. Knowledge of these rare anomalies is imperative for proper diagnosis and treatment. We observed horseshoe kidney with bilateral duplex ureters in a 65-year-old male cadaver. Details of the anomaly, its embryological basis and significance are discussed in the article.</p> Ashok K R Rohini K R Kiran T V Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 5 2 52 54 Branching Pattern of Brachial Artery with Accent to High up Division & Clinical Significance <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>The Brachial artery (BA) is used for various clinical procedures, particularly with respect to blood pressure monitoring and percutaneous arterial catheterization. A sound and accurate knowledge of anatomical variations regarding the BA especially higher division of BA are important for clinical diagnosis and surgical management of diseases of superior extremities. Because of such importance, we undertook the study to investigate the course and branching pattern of BA with special reference to high up division and to discuss its clinical significance.<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>:A total of 50 formalin fixed upper limbs were utilized in the present study.&nbsp; The branching pattern of BA variability was studied.<strong>Results:</strong>Variation in the branching pattern of BA was observed in 8 specimens (16%). The variations encountered were superior brachial artery (2%), deep brachial artery (2%), superficial ulnar artery (2%), and superficial radial artery (10%).<strong>Conclusion:</strong>The present study highlights the necessity for a thorough knowledge of brachial artery with respect to the high up division, to enhance the efficacy of diagnosis and for better surgical management of vascular diseases and injuries.</p> Khizer Hussain Afroze M S.M. Badar Hayat Siraj Ahmed Shirbadgi Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 5 2 55 58 Anatomical Variation in Origin of Profunda Femoris Artery and its Branches <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Profunda femoris artery (PFA) is the leading branch of femoral artery which supplies all the muscles of thigh. During the procedures arterial catheterization damage to PFA may invite unnecessary and unpredicted complications. Precise anatomy of PFA forms strong foundation to minimize problems. The aims of the present study were to compare the right side and left side origin of profunda femoris artery cross sectional area, and to compare the distance of origin of the femoral artery branches from mid-inguinal point. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The study was conducted in Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College, Kishanganj, Bihar. This study based on dissections performed on 60 properly embalmed human cadaver specimens. All the mode of origin and its level calculated using statistically parameters and equations. The specimens with range between 21-60 mm in diameter were included for the study in left and right side origin level of PFA identified. <strong>Results: </strong>In the present study out of 60 a total 56 specimens screened for dissected lower limb specimens. The 52 had arising separately from femoral artery, 3 specimens arising as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral artery, and 1 patient arising s common trunk lateral. Higher level of level of origin of PFA was found to be quite recurrently. The different type of range were observed in lateral circumflex femoral arteries and medial circumflex femoral arteries from right and left sides of arteries. The range between 21-30 mm diameters were successfully noted after the dissection in both the circumflex femoral arteries in right and left side. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Range of origin of PFA was different in other cases and similar in some cases. Feature understanding regarding variations in point of branches, origin of PFA is clinically shown significance and should not be ignored. And the current observation will help to surgeons for the better understanding of variation and anatomical features of PFA.</p> Shambhu Nath Jha Saif Omar Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 5 2 59 62 Histological Structure of Meniscus <p>Meniscal damage is a common cause of joint injury, which can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis, a prevalent form of osteoarthritis among the younger population Therefore, understanding the structural knowledge of the Meniscus will help in reproduce the native meniscus. Objectives: To improve the histological knowledge of meniscus and to understand the valuation of histology of meniscus attachment to the bone. Ultrastructure of meniscus observed from proximal to distal attachments showed the more complicated and complex arrangement of collagen bundles with interspersed cells in between. Ultrastructure of meniscus also should be borne in mind before preparing meniscal grafts. It has complex histological structure. It is essential to consider the details of the histological structure in meniscus reconstruction surgeries to restore its full functionality. This review may be useful as a reference to investigate the mechanical properties of meniscus.</p> Sivasakthi M Yogesh Ashok Sontakke Aravindhan K Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Anatomica International 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 5 2 63 65