Academia Anatomica International https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Academia Anatomica International 2617-5207 Morphometric Study of Posterior Cranial Fossa Using Computerized Tomographic (CT) Images https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/481 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The posterior cranial fossa is the largest and the deepest of the three fossae. Contents of posterior cranial fossa include occipital part of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Variations in the volume of posterior cranial fossa may cause compression of these structures which may lead to various disorders. There is increasing evidence on the diagnostic potential of posterior cranial fossa measurements. The present study on morphometry of posterior cranial fossa based on CT images of patients without any clinical abnormality was undertaken for the first time in south Indian population. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: To study and compare sex-wise and age-wise differences in the supratentorial and posterior cranial fossa (PF) measurements in the normal CT scan images of 62 males and 38 females who attended the Neurology department of SVIMS belonging to Rayalaseema region was undertaken. The measurements that were recorded are transverse diameter (TD) and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of supratentorial part and also posterior cranial fossa and height and volume of posterior cranial fossa. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean supratentorial TD and APD were found to be less in male but were not statistically significant sex-wise and age-wise. The mean posterior fossa APD was significant, PF height and volume were highly significantly in males. <strong>Discussion:</strong> There are no reports on supratentorial parameters in literature for comparing the results of present study. Except for one study on CT on height and volume of posterior cranial fossa there are no other studies for comparing the values of present study. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Observations on supratentorial parameters of the present study are the first to be reported in literature.Age-wise and sex-wise observation of parameters of TD and APD of PF are the first to be reported in literature.</p> Hemalata Rath Subhadra Devi Velichety Lakshmi AY Thyagaraju K Pavan P Havaldar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 1 5 Variation in the Origin of Superior Thyroid Artery and it’s Relation with External Laryngeal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/483 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Thyroid gland is a highly vascular gland placed anteriorly in the neck, extending from the level of fifth cervical vertebra to first thoracic vertebra.The lobes of gland are conical. Their apices diverge laterally to the oblique line on the lamina of thyroid cartilage, and their bases are at the level of 4th or 5th tracheal ring. The relationship of the superior thyroid artery to the external laryngeal nerve is important to the surgeon during thyroid surgery.The artery and nerve are close to each other higher up but diverge near the gland. Thus in order to avoid injury to the external laryngeal nerve, the superior thyroid artery is ligated as near to the gland as possible. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This study was conducted on 50 cadavers of known age and sex in the dissection laboratory, department of anatomy. The cadavers were embalmed through carotid arterial perfusion or femoral arterial perfusion. <strong>Results:</strong> The site of the origin of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was evaluated as it arose from external carotid artery in 66% cases, from carotid bifurcation in 33% cases and from common carotid artery in 1% cases.The site of the origin of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was evaluated as it arose from external carotid artery in 66% cases, from carotid bifurcation in 33% cases and from common carotid artery in 1% cases.The evaluation of distance from upper pole of the thyroid gland to the level where External superior laryngeal nerve turns medially from Superior thyroid artery was found More than 1 cm in 73% cases &amp; Less than 1 cm in 27% cases. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The relationship of superior thyroid artery to external superior laryngeal nerve is very important for surgeons during thyroid surgeries to avoid injuries to above nerves while ligating STA.</p> Anuj Ram Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 6 9 Osteosarcoma of the Skull: An Unusual Presentation in the Left Parietal-Occipital Region https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/484 <p>Osteosarcoma (OS) is an uncommon primary malignant brain tumor. The incidence of osteosarcoma of the skull is low with an estimated 3.4 cases per million reported per year. We report a case of OS of the skull in an 18-year-old female patient. She had complained of swelling on the left side of the head accompanied with frequent headache and diminished vision in the left eye. An PET-CT of the skull revealed a large 93x90 mm lesion in the left parietal-occipital region. Osteoblastic osteogenic sarcoma of the skull was confirmed histopathologically. The patient received six cycles of Adriamycin and cisplatin; is under close observation and currently doing well. It is empirical to report case reports, specifically unusual cases like OS of the skull. Case reports not only help disseminate knowledge but also help streamline diagnostic and treatment approaches for unusual cases.</p> Aditya Adhav Sagar Bhalerao Rajnish Nagarkar Sirshendu Roy Samadhan Pawar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 10 11 Measurement of Popliteal Artery Diameter: A Cadavaric Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/486 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The popliteal artery is the branches off from the femoral artery. It is located in the knee towards the back of the legs. The clinicians and radiologists dealing with the popliteal area use description of branching pattern of the popliteal artery, in which it first gives rise to anterior tibial artery followed by the tibial peroneal trunk, which then terminates by dividing into the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. As popliteal artery is one of the most common sites for aneurysm formation, the knowledge of the normal popliteal artery diameter is essential to determine the relevance of popliteal dilatations. Objective: Considering the clinical importance of diameter of popliteal artery, this study was undertaken to note the internal diameter of popliteal artery. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present study was conducted on 50 specimen embedded in 10% formalin from the department of Anatomy of tertiary care hospital &amp; medical college. Cadavers which had gross pathological deformities in its lower limbs were excluded from the study. All the cadavers were adult males and females. <strong>Results:</strong> This study states right popliteal arteries are slightly larger (4.9 ± 0.7 mm) as compare to left popliteal artery (4.8± 0.5 mm). This study also reconfirm popliteal arteries of men are slightly larger than that of female (4.9 ± 0.7 mm), (4.6± 0.9 mm) and left popliteal artery (4.8± 0.5 mm), (4.6± 0.7 mm) respectively. On the other hand terminal part its diameter is slightly larger in male (4.5 ± 0.6 mm) as compare to female (4.3 ± 0.5 mm). This study also shows terminal end of left popliteal arteries (3.8 ± 0.7 mm) are smaller than right popliteal arteries (4.3 ± 0.5 mm). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study was done in a small cadaveric sample. In our prospective different live and cadaveric study will be helpful for vascular surgeons, radiologists. The variation in the measurement of our study compare to other study may be due to the difference in live and cadaveric spacemen or due to the method of measurement. Therefore, we suggest before making any decision study on much larger sample should be consider.</p> Sanjay Singh Saroj Kumar Md. Tabrej Alam Kamil Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 12 15 Histological Structure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament - Review https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/487 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the commonly injured ligaments of the knee joint due to sports activities. Because of the poor healing capacity of the ACL, surgical treatment for ACL injuries was followed for many years. Therefore, understanding the structural knowledge of the ACL will help in reproduce the native ACL. Objectives: To improve the histological knowledge of ACL and to understand the valuation of histology of ACL attachment to the bone. &nbsp;<strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: PubMed and Google search was used as a search engine to collect the concerned articles that describing the histology of ACL. The key words were ACL, histology, Ultrastructure. <strong>Results:</strong> Ultrastructure of ACL observed from proximal to distal attachments showed the more complicated and complex arrangement of collagen bundles with interspersed cells in between. Ultrastructure of ACL also should be borne in mind before preparing ACL grafts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> ACL has complex histological structure. It is essential to consider the details of the ACL histological structure in ACL reconstruction surgeries to restore its full functionality. This review may be useful as a reference to investigate the mechanical properties of ACL footprint.</p> Jahira Banu Yogesh Sontakke Dharmaraj Tamgire Suma H Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 16 20 Evaluation of Gender in Living Male and Female Children Through the Measurement of Sternum Bone in the Population of Uttar Pradesh https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/488 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sex evaluation from the skeletal remains is of very much important for medicolegal aspects in the field of medical science. On the basis of previous researcher, I have been planned to verify the existrnal data and establish them in reference to population in and around Lucknow. With the help of this study we were distinguishes the male and female sternum bone in children. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The technique described by Ashley GT -1956b was used for measurement of sternum. Each linear measurement has been taken thrice on the anatomical position of the sternum using Mitutoyo-digital vernier calipers to the nearest millimeter with precision of 0.01 mm. <strong>Results:</strong> Discussion: The previous researchers told that the sternum has distinguished in different zone of India, and it is shorter than European country. Our findings of manubrium were 49.45±3.45 mm for male and 44.47± 5.79 mm for female children respectively. The study done by previous researcher was provided full support to our present finding. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The comparison of mean length of manubrium, mesosternum and sternum between 2 to 15 yrs, female and male sternum between two groups, significantly different and higher length of manubrium, mesosternum and sternum in males as compared to females children.</p> S V Sharma A K Pankaj Navneet Kumar Mr Nilesh H B Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 21 24 Corrosion Cast- Comparison of Different Techniques and Materials Used in Corrosion Casting https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/489 <p>In medical terms, cast refers to the replica obtained after filling a luminal structure with resin to reproduce its morphology. It can be accomplished by removing the soft tissue around it, termed corrosion or maceration. Corrosion casts form very important material in learning morphology of various structures like- vascular tree, tracheobronchial tree, luminal casts of various organs. Vascular casts have been studied using scanning electron microscopy, which has contributed to understanding the biological processes. If the specimen is fixed after resin injection, it can be used for surgical training, medical teaching etc. In the present review, the authors have tried to analyse the technical aspects of corrosion casting. We have also added note on polyurethane foam cast of coronary vessels, which was carried out in our laboratory.</p> Suma H Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 5 1 25 30 Origin of Right Coronary Artery (RCA): A Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Coronary Angiographic (CA) Study in North India https://aijournals.com/index.php/aanat/article/view/588 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Several clinical and pathological scenarios like hemodynamic procedures, cardiac surgery in heart trauma and arrhythmias from coronary occlusive disease management have importance of variations in the origin of Right Coronary Artery (RCA). The RCA presents a wide spectrum of morphological expressions regarding its sites of origin, course, branches, length, size and termination. RCA usually arises from the Anterior Aortic Sinus (AAS) and traverses through the right atrio-ventricular (AV) groove. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: In the present study, Computed Tomographic (CT) coronary angiograms of 50 routine subjects of different age groups who came to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, King George’s Medical University UP, Lucknow in the year 2010- 2011 with known or suspected coronary artery disease, were analyzed. Coronary angiography (CA) was performed on a 64 slice Multidetector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) scanner, using retrospective electrocardiographic (ECG) gating. The incidence of different sites of origin of RCA was assessed. <strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, RCA originated from Anterior Aortic Sinus (AAS) in 47 (94%) subjects. In 3 (6%) subjects, RCA showed anomalous origin from Left Posterior Aortic Sinus (LPAS). These three subjects were males [3(9.38%)]. In all the subjects, the course of RCA was normal except three males having origin of RCA from LPAS. In these three males, the proximal part of RCA coursed between Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) and aorta. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most common site for origin of RCA was AAS. Anomalous origin of RCA was seen only from LPAS. Anomalous origin of RCA was seen only in male subjects. In all subjects having anomalous origin of RCA from LPAS, RCA coursed between pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta.</p> Sushma Tomar P K Sharma Punita Manik Manoj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 5 1 31 39