Academia Anatomica International 2018-12-22T06:37:51+00:00 Dr. Nidhi Sharma Open Journal Systems <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> Extraperitoneal (RT) Renal Ectopia – Asymptomatic Case Report 2018-11-25T05:59:15+00:00 Afodun Adam Moyosore Edgar Mario Fernandez Buhari Muhammad Olanrewaju Okesina Akeem Ayodeji Quadri Khadijah Kofoworola Ogbe Alex <p>Renal ectopia anatomically results from altered migration of kidneys to their normal position in the lumbar region. Few case reports have been reported in literature. Visceral-tissue variation was in form of quadratus lumborum and psoas major in place of the RT kidney. A 21 year old female with positive HCG (pregnancy test) presented for radiological (ultrasound) confirmation of cyesis, though no sonic evidence of gravidae was observed (&lt; 5 wks GA); confirmatory ectopic kidney was diagnosed on completion of ultrasound. This report underscores the importance of imaging the RT groin and illiac region before surgical intervention thus preventing iatrogenic injury genesis. Treatment of this condition will depend on the functional capacity of the kidney, while nephrectomy is recommended for ‘static’ non-functional kidneys. Non-complicated cases and anatomic variation can be managed conservatively.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Adherence of Musculocutaneous Nerve to Median Nerve Without Piercing Coracobrachialis Muscle – A Case Report 2018-12-18T16:31:49+00:00 Dawit Habte Woldeyes <p>The brachial plexus has been reported to show different variations with its formation, course, branches and distribution patterns. During routine dissection in the department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University. One such variation was observed, musculocutaneous nerve arises as usual from the lateral cord but unusually, it does not pierce the coracobrachialis muscle rather, the nerve unites with median nerve and forms common trunk and gives branches to the anterior compartment of the arm in the middle of the arm. Considering clinical importance, recognition and knowledge of such possible anatomical variation will be helpful in the field of neurology, anesthesia and surgery.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concomitant Occurrence of Fenestrated Internal Jugular Vein and Sub-omohyoid External Jugular Vein: A Case Report 2018-12-18T16:36:45+00:00 Sulochana Sakthivel Suman Verma <p>External jugular vein is the superficial vein of the neck and is prone to variations. Multiple internal jugular veins are incidental findings that present as a duplication or fenestration. We encountered a unilateral fenestrated internal jugular vein and a bilateral variation in the course of external jugular vein, during a cadaveric dissection. The external jugular vein, after its formation, crossed the sternocleidomastoid muscle and pierced the investing cervical fascia of the posterior triangle. It traversed deep to the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle to enter the subclavian triangle and terminated by draining into the subclavian vein on the left side, and at the angle between the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein on the right side. The fenestrated internal jugular vein on the left side divided into a small medial and large lateral division which reunited at the level of the tendon of omohyoid muscle and drained into the subclavian vein. Only the medial division of the internal jugular vein received tributaries in the neck. Awareness of the multiple variations of the jugular veins would be valuable during surgical approaches to the neck. Present report aims to be useful for vascular surgeons, radiologists, and intensivists as well.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Morphometric Study of Intercondylar Notch of Femur and its Clinical Significance 2018-12-18T16:41:36+00:00 Prasanna Veera Kumar Attada <p><strong>Background:</strong> The lower end of femur has condyles and in between the condyles there is a gap called an intercondylar notch. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is lodged in the notch. The ACL is closely related to the roof of the notch. A narrow notch can result ACL tear .Because of the clinical importance of notch morphology to ACL tears and as not many studies are there in the literature on dry bone; this morphological study on the intercondylar notch of femur was done. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> The study was done on 30 dry femurs (15 right and 15 left femurs). The parameters obtained for the study were the width and depth of the intercondylar notch and the width and depth of the femoral condyles. The study included noting down the shape of the intercondylar notch. The intercondylar notch width index and its depth index were calculated with the above parameters. <strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that the intercondylar notch was having inverted ‘U’ shape morphology in 14 (46.66%) specimens and was inverted ‘V’ shaped in 16 (53.34%) specimens. The mean intercondylar notch width and depth, and width and depth of femoral condyles are 18.49± 11.8, 26.95± 12.7, 73.79±14.5, 56.18±13.7 respectively. P value and statistical significance, the two-tailed P value equals 0.58, 0.39, 0.84, 0.82 respectively for the width and depth of the intercondylar notch and the width and depth of the femoral condyles for the right and left femurs. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. The notch width index and notch depth index are 0.25 and 0.47 respectively in the study. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study has provided additional information on this subject .Bony morphological studies as well as the radiological studies combined with the correlated clinical studies are required to understand the pathology of ACL tears.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relation between Nasal Septal Deviation and Pneumatization of Mastoid Air Cells – A Computerised Tomographic Study 2018-12-18T16:48:00+00:00 N. Vinay Kumar T. S. Gugapriya <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The environment of middle ear cavity gets regulated mostly by pneumatized mastoid air cell system (MACS). Many theories exist that details the process of pneumatization of this MACS. The nasal septal deviation (NSD) has been shown to be instrumental in influencing pneumatization of paranasal sinuses to varied degrees. The effect of NSD on the pneumatization of MACS remains questionable due to limited literature available. And so this study was done to find the relation between the side of NSD and extent of Pneumatization of MACS on that side by computerized tomographs of Paranasal sinus region. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>120 CT images of paranasal region from archives of radiology department were studied for NSD. The NSD was classified according to the nasal septal angle. The extent of pneumatization of mastoid region was studied and classified. The relation between severe NSD and extent of mastoid pneumatization was noted.<strong> Results: </strong>NSD was found to be right sided in 90% cases studied and 20, 45, 55 were seen belonging to group I, II and III NSD respectively. The mean NSA was found to be 13.5o.&nbsp; Mastoid region was observed to be hypo pneumatized in the side of NSD in 42 cases of group III NSD. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of the study puts forth the need for assessment of NSD and planning possible correction of NSD prior to middle ear and mastoid surgeries for successful results.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey of Medical Students to find out their Choice of Paper Types for Examination 2018-12-18T16:56:09+00:00 Noor US Saba Deepshikha Singh Nafis Ahmad Faruqi M. Tariq Zaidi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Researchers have paid little attention to evaluating examination methodologies. Both subjective and objective questionnaires are needed to assess overall knowledge and skill of students. To make the papers student friendly, a survey on students’ choice for question papers is of utmost importance. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>122 students were provided with five question paper types having equal marks and given equal time to solve them. At the end of the examination they were asked to grade the paper as per their choice which were tabulated and analyzed.<strong> Results:</strong> Majority of the students gave the first preference to question paper type V (MCQs). As far as the choice of second best paper type was considered, there was discrepancy among good and mediocre students. The former considered paper type I (long essay type) while the latter selected type IV (write in brief) as the best paper type. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> To make the examination process, student friendly, paper having three question paper type i.e. MCQs, long essay type and write in brief should be coined.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PDA (Posterior Descending Artery) & Coronary Dominance-A MDCT Coronary Angiographic Analysis of Anatomic Variations and Clinical Importance 2018-12-18T17:07:00+00:00 Sushma Tomar Punita Manik P K Sharma Manoj Kumar <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> There is considerable variation in the arterial supply of diaphragmatic surface of the heart. Diaphragmatic myocardial infarction is one of the more common consequences of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of anatomic variants of origin and termination of Posterior Descending Artery (PDA) and to determine the type of coronary dominance in North Indian population. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This prospective study was carried out on 50 routine subjects of different age groups who came to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, King George’s Medical University UP, Lucknow in the year 2010- 2011 with known or suspected coronary artery disease. All the cases were investigated on a 64 slice Multidetector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) scanner, using retrospective Electrocardiographic gating. Endeavour was made to determine the incidence of sites of origin and termination of PDA as well as to determine the type of coronary dominance.<strong> Results:</strong> PDA arose from Right Coronary Artery (RCA) in 39 (78%) cases and from Left Circumflex (LCx) artery in 11(22%) cases. The PDA was found to terminate in the upper 1/4 of Posterior Inter-Ventricular Groove (PIVG) in 18 (36%) cases, in upper 1/2 of PIVG in 19 (38%) cases, in upper 3/4 of PIVG in 10 (20%) cases and at the apex of the heart in 1 (2%) case. None of the female had termination of PDA at the apex. Termination of PDA could not be determined in 2 (4%) cases. Right dominance was seen in 36 (72%) cases, Left dominance in 11 (22%) cases. and Co-dominance in 3 (6%) cases. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Posterior descending artery most commonly terminated after traversing the upper half of posterior inter-ventricular groove. The incidence of left coronary dominance was more in females, it was approximately twice the incidence found in males. Co-dominance was observed only in male subjects.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Student Perception of Virtual Dissection Table (Anatomage) at GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry 2018-12-22T06:22:56+00:00 Amit Singh Bharati Surya Kumari N V. Subhashini Rani <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Anatomage Table is the only fully segmented real human 3D anatomy system. Individual structures are reconstructed in accurate 3D and it helps the medical pre-clinical students to&nbsp; explore and understand&nbsp; human anatomy&nbsp; like never before and even beyond a cadaveric dissection. Anatomage is an interface that affords students the opportunity to explore life-size anatomy on an interactive 3D table.<sup>[1]</sup> Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to gather student opinion regarding this virtual dissection table (Anatomage) technology. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A questionnaire addressing the role of the Anatomage table in anatomy education and its comparison with various other learning modality was completed by 150 pre-clinical medical students. A free hand comment section was also included in the study.<strong> Results:</strong> 96% of students&nbsp; strongly preferred the cross sectional planes and images of Anatomage over still images of text book in learning Anatomy. 95% of students strongly agreed that the ability of Anatomage to rotate and dissect is better in visualizing the body systems. 90% of students strongly agreed that Anatomage can be an adjunct or added tool to cadaveric dissection but not its replacement.48% of students believe Anatomage visualisation is better than real dissected structures. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Anatomage can play an important role in the acquisition of 3D&nbsp; knowledge of Anatomy and promises to be a useful added tool to traditional learning modalities, which still ranked high. This feedback also reveals that students are fascinated with the inclusion of Anatomage in their curriculum as it helps them in understanding, revising and learning in a better way than before. This virtual dissection table can be of immense help in medical colleges where sufficient number of cadavers are not available for Anatomical study.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dermatoglyphic Pattern Differences in Females with Reproductive System Cancers and It’s Scope in Preventive Care 2018-12-22T06:37:51+00:00 P. Sofia Subhadra Devi Velichety P. A. Chandrasekharan G. Ravi Prabhu <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Female reproductive system cancers shorten lifespan in women because of high mortality and morbidity. The detection of pre-invasive and micro-invasive stages makes near 100% survival of cancer patients. Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of fingerprints. Many genes which take part in the control of finger and palm dermatoglyphic development distinguished cancer patients from the general population. It is possible that these genes also predispose to the development of malignancy. Since many investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis of cancers, dermatoglyphics can be used as a screening procedure for planning preventive care if a specific pattern is known for a cancer. <strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> To analyze the prints of different cancers, to analyze the results, compare with controls and observe the differences in main parameters of dermatoglyphic patterns and to determine a specific pattern for specific cancers. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective, observational and an analytical study started after the approval by Institutional Ethical Committee of S.V. Medical College, Tirupati. The material for the study consisted of finger and palm prints of outpatients and inpatients of the Department of OBG, Tirupati, Cancer Hospital in and around Tirupati, Nellore and Kadapa. The ink prints of each finger and palm were collected and analyzed.<strong> Results:</strong> Ridge counts, digital patterns and main line formulae observed in different cancers in the present study were analyzed and presented. Mean TFRC was higher in normal group. Greater AFRC was observed in cancer cervix patients when compared to controls. In the present study, there is no difference (p&gt; 0.05) in a-b ridge count among carcinoma of cervix and control group in both hands. Differences of mean atd, tad and tda angles among the groups are not statistically significant (P&gt;0.05).The most common C-main line termination pattern of cancers are U followed by R and then Ab. IV interdigital area of both hands presented less incidence of loop pattern in cancer cases when compared to normal group. Special findings in respective cancers are discussed separately and they are not found in any other literature. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> There are very limited studies in literature on dermatoglyphic pattern in female reproductive cancers. Though the cost of prints is less, more time and skilled human resources are required for their analysis. Study sample size of controls and cases to be increased. Public should be enlightened about dermatoglyphics. If large number of studies are done and a specific pattern is established for specific cancers, then it becomes cost-effective to people so that a risk is predicted beforehand in any disease and preventive methods can be employed at an early age as the dermatoglyphic patterns do not change in a life time.</p> 2018-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##