Academia Anatomica International <p><strong class="pull-left">Academia Anatomica International</strong>&nbsp;is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access, Bi- annual journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy. <br><strong>Online ISSN: 2455-5274 | Print ISSN:&nbsp;2617-5207</strong></p> en-US (Dr. Nidhi Sharma) Tue, 22 Dec 2020 06:40:51 +0000 OJS 60 Thoracobrachialis- A Cadaveric Study of a Morphological Variation of Pectoralis Major with a Novel Nomenclature and Classification of the Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle <p><strong>Background: </strong>Anatomical variations are not uncommon in the pectoral region but the chondroepitrochlearis muscle has been of special interest in history owing to its rarity. Chondroepitrochlearis is a muscular slip that arises from the lower ribs, the inferolateral aspect of the pectoralis major, or the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle and crosses the axilla to insert on the medial intermuscular septum or the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Multiple variants of this muscle exist including chondroepitrochlearis, chondrofascialis, costoepitrochlearis, thoracoepicondylaris, chondrohumeralis, etcetera. The objectives is to article aims to simplify and standardize the reporting of the chondroepitrochlearis muscle by proposing a novel nomenclature and classification. In this paper, we also present and discuss a case of chondroepitrochlearis. <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>A prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2020 in the Department of Anatomy, ESIC MC and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, to identify anatomical variations in the pectoral region. <strong>Results: </strong>During routine dissection of a male cadaver, an unusual slip was found on the right side and was identified as chondroepitrochlearis. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Since the reporting of this rare muscle has been increasing in live patients, taking into consideration the variability in the presentation of the same anatomical structure, to avoid confusion, we propose a novel, blanket nomenclature- “Thoracobrachialis”. We also propose a clinically relevant classification that is based on the level of insertion of the muscle and the possible neurovascular structures involved.</p> Rachana Suresh, N Hema, R Srinivas Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis with Subclinical Infection <p>Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic complication of measles. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive and memory deterioration, behaviour abnormalities, involuntary movements and repetitive myoclonic jerks and a steady motor decline. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with myoclonic jerks, regression of motor milestones and speech. The child was not immunised for measles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple variable-sized ill-defined T2W and FLAIR hyperintense areas are seen involving the white matter of the bilateral fronto-parietal lobes. Electroencephalograph findings and CSF analysis confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.</p> V. A. Kotrashetti, Vijay Baburao Sonawane, Kapil Bainade, Shweta Nair, Amit Vatkar, Santosh Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphology and Anthropometry of Rhomboid Impression of Clavicle and its Clinical Applications – A South Indian Population Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The medial end of clavicle is connected to the upper surface of anterior end of first rib and its costal cartilage by rhomboid ligament which assist the movements of pectoral girdle as well as resist the pull of medial end of clavicle by pectoralis major and sternocleidomastiod muscles. Consequently, the attachment of it on the clavicle produces various patterns like tubercles, grooves, etc. called as the rhomboid impression. This normal variant of rhomboid impression may be interpreted sometimes as pathological lesions like necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumour. Also, the morphology of rhomboid impression varies in different population. Such study in South Indian population is very much sparse and so this study is planned for. The objective is to it is aimed to estimate the prevalence of various morphology of rhomboid impression, to measure the anthropometry of impression and the distance from the medial end of impression to medial end of clavicle. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This descriptive study was carried in 200 adult human dry clavicles of both sides and various patterns of rhomboid impression, anteroposterior and transverse diameter of impression and distance between the medial end of impression and medial end of clavicle was measured with digital vernier caliper. Statistical analysis was done and p-value of &lt; 0.05 is considered to be significant. <strong>Results</strong>: The most common pattern observed was depression and rough (29%) followed by elevated and rough (28.5%). The resection length of the medial end of clavicle was 11 mm from the medial end of impression to medial end of clavicle. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of the present study on the morphology and anthropometry of rhomboid impression of adult human clavicles and the resection length of medial end of rhomboid impression from the medial end of clavicle will provide guidance for the anthropologists, orthopedicians, radiologists, vascular surgeons and in forensic investigations.</p> K.V. Sarala Devi, Sulochana Sakthivel Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Previous Year University Anatomy Question Papers Based on Content Validity <p><strong>Background: </strong>In the current medical system of education, the students are mainly focusing on passing the examinations rather than improving the knowledge. Judgement making capabilities and clinical application of the knowledge should be assimilated through medical education. The ideal evaluation system is always necessary to determine whether programmed educational objectives have been accomplished. The written examination papers of undergraduate in anatomy and their valid content are the most important tools of assessment. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The first MBBS examination papers of Anatomy from the year 2009 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. <strong>Results &amp; Conclusion</strong>: The appropriate coverage of anatomy subject is essential for validity of an assessment. Even though the content of anatomy written examination papers was given in syllabus, the weightage of various subdivisions of anatomy was not specified.</p> D. Geeta Anasuya, Sheela Grace Jeevamani Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anatomical Variation in Extrahepatic Biliary Apparatus <p><strong>Background: </strong>For several years, the pathology of the biliary system has been the focus of prolonged study. Largely due to their surgical relevance and the simplicity with which they can be treated in cholecystectomies. While interest in extrahepatic bile ducts has been intensified, very rare studies have been performed on the Indian subcontinent. The anatomical differences of the extra-hepatic biliary area were defined in this study, as these variations are important throughout surgical techniques such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thus minimising post-operative difficulties. The objective is aim of the research was to observe anatomical differences in the extrahepatic biliary system in Indian cadaveric specimen samples. <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>Sample content consisted of 100 human cadavers of any sex that were dissected. Cadaver specimens from the dissection room were examined. Cadaver specimens were obtained from Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College, Kishanganj, Bihar, Department of Anatomy. By the traditional method of dissection, they were studied. <strong>Results: </strong>In the current study, the smallest gall bladder observed was around 25ml, while the largest gall bladder was around 120ml. On average, our study recorded around 50 ml of the gall bladder. Congenital anomalies of the gall bladder included Intrahepatic, Double, Bilobed and separate mesentery. Further, the pathological findings accounted for 20% of total cases and a solitary pathology involving carcinoma was noted. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anatomical variants of the extrahepatic biliary system are widespread and are important for surgeons to prevent injury as critical structures through surgical operations and increase surgical results by recognising them.</p> Shambhu Nath Jha, Saif Omar Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Tibial Nerve in the Popliteal Fossa Along With Its Variations in Its Branching Pattern <p><strong>Background: </strong>A detailed Knowledge of these variations in motor branching patterns will help the surgeons when certain procedures are done for calf reduction and also when selective neurectomy is required. It is also required by the anesthetists to give neurolytic blocks. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>40 formalin-fixed lower limbs of adult human cadavers were selected. The origin of the tibial nerve, variations in a branching pattern, number of muscular branches given was studied by dissection. The Level of origin of these nerves was taken to the apex of the head of the fibula (AHF). <strong>Results: </strong>In 70 % of specimens the origin of the Tibial Nerve was &lt; 12 cm and in 30 % it was between 12-24 cm above the level of AHF. In 10% of cases, the sural nerve originated from the nerve to the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG). In 82.5% of specimens, the MHG received one branch from the tibial nerve and in 17.5% it received two branches. The lateral head of Gastrocnemius (LHG) received one branch from the tibial nerve. In 10%, there was a common branch for the LHG and the soleus muscle. 90% of specimens had one branch and 10% had two branches that supplied the soleus muscle. A single branch supplied the plantaris muscle. The popliteus muscle also received a single branch. <strong>Conclusion : </strong>The results in the study provide information that is required by the anatomists, surgeons, radiologists and anesthetists.</p> W Benjamin, Raghavendra V Pisale, SA Premchand, Edward Indla, Seema Valsalan Ennazhiyil, VR Akshara, Lovely S Livingston Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Umbilical Cord Changes in Anemia, Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Umbilical cord (UC) structure is designed in such a way that it provides uninterrupted blood flow to the developing fetus even though it is influenced by uterine conditions and external forces throughout the pregnancy period. UC and placenta are the only structures, which nourish the fetus until term. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DVVPF’S Medical college and hospital. <strong>Results: </strong>In the GDM group without treatment, eccentric insertion is seen in 249 placentae and central insertion in 76 placentae. In the GDM group with treatment, central insertion is seen in 236 placentae and eccentric is seen in 89 patients. In the PIH group, without treatment, 22 central insertions and 68 eccentric insertions were observed. With treatment, PIH patients central insertions are seen in 76 and eccentric in 14. In the anemia group without treatment, 24 central insertions and 76 eccentric insertions are observed. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>On a concluding note, we observed in our study that, the pathological features observed in anemia, pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus are on a minimal note in treated patients after their onset, than in untreated patients. Various awareness programs constitutionalized by Governments and various NGO’s are bringing upon a desired change, but at the same time, intensity and frequency are to be increased.</p> Mithil Potuganti, B. R. Zambare Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Stature and Head Circumference in Uttar Pradesh Population <p><strong>Background: </strong>Anthropometry is the measurement of different parameters of any human individual. Anthropometry was first developed in 19<em><sup>th</sup> </em>century. It was introduced by French police officer Alphonse Bertillion in 1883. Anthropometric measurements are important for identifying unknown bodies. The objectives is to the aim of present study is measuring head circumference and stature and their correlation so that a conclusion can be drawn about the correlation between these two parameters. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, IIMS&amp;R, Integral University, Lucknow. The present study group was done on 400 healthy individuals between 18-30 years of age (200 males &amp; 200 females) of Uttar Pradesh population. Measurement of head circumference and stature was done and then stature was correlated with the head circumference. Written consent was taken before the assessment. This study was ethically approved by IIMS&amp; R Institute research and ethical committee. Data was statistically analyzed. <strong>Results and Conclusions: </strong>In present study it was found that measurements of both the parameters (head circumference and stature) was higher in males in comparison to females. There was positive correlation between stature and head circumference.</p> Ekata Singh, Pratibha Shakya, Neelesh Kumar Shakya Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Morphometric Study of Adult Human Sterna from the Galloway Osteological Collection <p><strong>Background: </strong>Morphometric knowledge of the sternum is of great significance in cardiac surgery as variations in sternal dimensions have been considered a risk factor for translocation of suture material during median sternotomy, leading to poor outcomes. Fatalities attributed to subnor- mal sternal thickness have also been reported during sternal biopsies. Fractures of the sternum secondary to chest injury or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation may also be influenced by sternal thickness. Elongated xiphoid process can be mistaken for an epigastric mass which can be painful on palpation. Morphometric studies of African sterna are rare. The objective is to the study sought to describe the morphometry of adult sterna from the Galloway bone collection, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study employed a descriptive cross sectional design to collect and analyze quantitative data. Eighty five dry adult sterna (75 males and 10 females) were examined at the Department of Human Anatomy, Makerere University. Data analysis at univariate and bivariate levels were performed using SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. <strong>Results:</strong>A significant difference in the average length of the mesosternum was found between males at 94.6 mm (SD 11.2) and females at 82.2 mm (SD 15.2) (P=0.002). Two cases (9.5%) presented with elongated xiphoid process and one (1.2%) with subnormal mesosternal thickness. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of the sternal morphometry in sex identification, physical examination, sternal puncture and other thoracic procedures, calling for increased awareness of the findings.</p> Gonzaga Gonza Kirum, John Kukiriza, Gerald Tumusiime Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variation in Branching Pattern of Dorsalis Pedis Artery- A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study was conducted to assess the variation of the branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>The present cadaveric study was conducted on 46 lower limbs of both genders. Dorsalis pedis artery was identified and tracked down, the origin, branching pattern and the course were noted. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 46 limbs, 26 were of males and 20 were of males. Type A was seen in 24, B in 8, C in 3, D in 3, E in 2, F in 1, G in 1, H in 1, I in 1 and J in 2 cases. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that the Dorsalis pedis artery has variations in branching patterns. The most common type identified was typed A.</p> T Sadeesh, G Prabavathy Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variation in Branching Pattern of Splenic Artery- A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk in adults and is the second-largest next to the common hepatic artery in fetal life. The present study was conducted to assess variation in the branching pattern of the splenic artery. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present cadaveric study was conducted on 54 cadavers embalmed with 10% formalin. The peritoneal cavity was opened and explored. The celiac trunk, splenic artery and its branches were noted and photographed. <strong>Results: </strong>out of 54 cadavers, 26 were males and 28 were males. The origin of the splenic artery was from the celiac trunk in 47, a superior mesenteric artery in 4 and abdominal aorta in 3 cases. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that surgeons should have a thorough knowledge regarding the branching pattern of the splenic artery. There was variation in the origin of the splenic artery such as from celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta.</p> T Sadeesh, G Prabavathy Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Histomorphological Findings in Placenta in Cases of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>PIH is a common condition associated with changes in placenta. It leads to increased perinatal mortality. The present study was conducted to assess the morphological and histopathological changes in placenta in cases of pregnancy induced hypertension. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present comparative study included 49 cases of PIH and 49 normotensive mothers. Clinical details and placental morphology were noted. <strong>Results: </strong>That the two groups are similar with no significant difference. Placental weight and diameter were similar in PIH and control groups (p&gt;0.05). However, placental thickness and number of cotyledons were greater in PIH group (p=0.00) while placental volume was lower with significant difference (p=0.01). PIH group showed greater proportion of infarction, calcification, hyalinised area per 10 lpf and intervillous haemorrhage (p=0.00). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>PIH leads to gross and microscopic changes in placental morphology.</p> Rekha Kumari, Nakul Choudhary, Rashmi Prasad Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Anatomical Variations of Popliteal Artery and its Branches <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Variations in branching of popliteal artery is important for the orthopaedicians, vascular surgeons and radiologists. The present study was conducted to assess the anatomical variations in popliteal artery, its terminal branching pattern. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The present cross-sectional study included 72 lower limbs received for cadaveric dissection. Anatomical variations of the popliteal artery were noted. <strong>Results: </strong>Type IA was the most common pattern seen (87.5%) followed by IB (5.6%) and IC (2.8%). One each of types IIA2, IIB and IIC were also seen. Mean length of 162.1 7.9 mm was observed from adductor magnus to the bifurcation point of popliteal artery. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Type IA was the most common branching pattern seen in this area. However, types IB, IC, IIA2, IIB and IIC were also seen.</p> Reema Kanchan Khalkho, A. K. Dubey, Renu Prasad, Prabhat Kumar Lal Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Research Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Morphometric Study of Pterion in Adult Dry Human Skulls <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Pterion is significant bony landmark because it commonly lies near the anterior branch of middle meningeal artery as well as Broca’s Area. The aim is to study the types of pterion and measure the distance from various bony landmarks on skull to the midpoint of pterion. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was performed on 70 adult dry human skulls of unknown age and sex. Types and location of pterion was observed bilaterally. Measurements were taken in millimeter using digital Vernier caliper from midpoint of pterion to i) fronto-zygomatic suture ii) middle of zygomatic arch iii) tip of mastoid process iv) glabella v) antero-superior margin of external acoustic meatus vi) Asterion. <strong>Results: </strong>We observed five types of pterion: spheno-parietal, fronto-temporal, stellate, epipteric and atypical. Among the skulls studied the most common type was sphenoparietal bilaterally. The mean of distances from midpoint of pterion to fronto-zygomatic suture was, 31.68&nbsp; &nbsp;5.58 mm and 31.18 5.82 mm; to the middle of zygomatic arch was 38.87 3.63 mm and 37.84&nbsp; 3.99 mm; to asterion was 83.55&nbsp; 7.22 mm and 85.53&nbsp; 6.88 mm; to external acoustic meatus it was 51.70 3.20 mm and 51.37 3.39mm; to glabella it was 77.24 6.93 mm and 76.44 6.83 mm; to tip of mastoid process it was 80.77 6.10mm on the right side and 79.59 5.70 mm on the left side. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pterion is the most commonly used surface landmark. Findings of present study regarding classification of pterion will be helpful for neurosurgeons, radiologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists.</p> Ananya Priya, Anjali Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anatomical Variations in Branching Pattern of Arch of Aorta – A Cadaveric Study in South Indian Population <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knowledge of the branching pattern of arch of aorta is important in avoiding surgical and accidental injuries during aortic instru- mentation, thoracic and neck surgeries. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study is based on dissections that were performed on 50 properly embalmed human cadaver specimens. The anatomical variations of arch of aorta and its branches, diameter of its branches at site of origin and distance of each branch from the point of origin to median plane were measured. <strong>Results: </strong>The usual three branched pattern of arch of aorta was found in 36 specimens (72%). The common trunk for both brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery was present in 10 specimens (20%). In 2 specimens (4%), the arch gives four branches, left vertebral artery being additional branch. In 1 specimen (2%), the arch gives three branches namely; common trunk for brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery, left vertebral artery and left subclavian artery. In 1 specimen (2%), the arch gives three branches namely; brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and common trunk for left vertebral artery and left subclavian artery. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results in this study provide significant information vital for anatomists, cardiovascular surgeons and radiologists.</p> S Kantharaj Naik, S.A. Premchand, W Benjamin Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Relation between External Branch of Superior Laryngeal Nerve & Thyroid Gland- A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>The thyroid gland is essential for normal growth of the body. This study assessed relation of external branch of superior laryngeal nerve to the superior pole of the thyroid gland. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted on 25 human cadavers having 50 superior thyroid poles of both genders. Cadavers were classified based on age groups, group I was those with age less than 39 years and group II cadavers were those with age more than 40 years of age. Various measurements were performed on cadavers. <strong>Results: </strong>14 cadavers were I group I and 11 were in group II. The mean mass was 67.2 Kgs in group I and 59.5 Kgs in group II, time elapsed after death was 481.5 minutes in group I and</p> <p>476.4 minutes in group II, mean height was 1.74 meters in group I and 1.69 meters in group II, mean BMI found to be 22.3 kg/m<sup>2</sup>in group I and 20.1 kg/m<sup>2</sup>in group II. Height found to be significant between both groups (P&lt; 0.05). The mean distance from EBSLN to cranial point of the thyroid gland was 6.66 mm in group I and 8.96 mm in group II. The mean transverse distance from superior thyroid artery to EBSLN was 3.55 mm in group I and 5.12 mm side in group II. The mean distance of the crossing point between the most cranial point of the thyroid lobe was 6.40 mm in group I and 11.47 mm in group II. The mean distance from the EBSLN to the midline of the neck was 19.80 mm in group I and 18.58 mm in group II. The mean distance from the EBSLN to the midline of the neck on the most cranial point of the cricoid cartilage was 18.77 mm in group I and 17.80 mm in group II. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found variation in measurements in left and right side in both group I and group II.</p> Anurag, Vishnu Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Morphometry of Placenta in Determination of Birth Weight of Fetus in Hypertensive Mothers <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study was conducted to assess the association of morphometry of the placenta and birth weight of fetus in hypertensive mothers. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 74 pregnant women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and those with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). The following morphometric parameters of each placenta were recorded: weight, volume, thickness, transverse diameter, and shape. Gestational age of mothers, sex and birth weight of newborns were recorded. <strong>Results: </strong>The majority of male babies with weight &gt; 2500 grams had &gt; 37 weeks of gestational age and the majority of female babies with weight &gt;2500 grams had &gt;37 weeks of gestational age. The mean weight of placentae in male babies was 416.7 grams, the mean surface area was 226.5 sq cm, mean volume was 372.2 ml and mean thickness were 2.04 cm. while the mean weight of placentae in female babies was 407.5 grams, the mean surface area was 220.4 sq cm, mean volume was 354.6 ml and mean thickness was 2.10 cm. Statistics show that the highest sensitivity and specificity for determining the low birth weight of babies in hypertensive mothers was seen with a surface area of the placenta which was 82.3% and 75.6% respectively. The positive predictive value for the weight of the placenta was 65.4%, for the surface area it was 67.8% and for the volume of the placenta, it was 64.2%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>To conclude, it was found that placental morphometry like weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently in hypertensive mothers.</p> Yousuf Begum, Syeda Ayesha Fatima, Syeda Khadija Fatima Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Transverse Diameter of The Lumbar Spinal Canal in Plain Radiograph in Population of Telangana, India <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study was conducted to determine Transverse diameter (inter-pedicular distances) of the lumbar spinal canal measured in plain antero-posterior radiograph of 140 subjects (80 males, 60 females) aged between 20 to 60 years in population of Telangana. <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>The present study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, in a teaching medical college and hospital in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. It comprised of antero-posterior plain radiographs of lumbar spine of 140 subjects, aged between 20 to 60 years. Transverse diameter of the lumbar spinal canal or inter-pedicular distances (IPD), and transverse diameter of the vertebral body was measured using electronic Digital Vernier calipers, and the ratio between transverse diameter of vertebral canal and transverse diameter of the corresponding vertebral body were analyzed. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 140 patients, males were 80 and females were 60. The mean inter-pedicular distance (IPD) at L1 was 24.2 mm in males and 23.4 mm in females, and at L5 was 30.2 mm in males and 29.6 mm in females. Mean transverse diameter of lumbar vertebral canal (I.P.D) is minimum at L1 vertebra in both sexes. The maximum values of I.P.D were recorded for vertebra L5 for both sexes. The values of IPD are higher in male population in comparison to female counterparts. The mean width of the vertebral body is gradually increasing from L1 to L5. Ratio between transverse diameter of vertebral canal and transverse diameter of the corresponding vertebral body is seen to be constant (0.6)&nbsp;&nbsp; at all lumbar level in both the sexes. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that there is variation in the size of the lumbar vertebral canal between males and females. Even after the revolution of various imaging techniques like CT Scan, MRI, etc., the plain radiography remains the mainstay of investigative procedure particularly in rural setup.</p> Yousuf Begum, Syed Rehan Hafiz Daimib, Syeda Ayesha Fatima, Syeda Khadija Fatima Copyright (c) 2020 Author Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Placental Changes in Anemia, Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess the changes occurring in the placenta due to anemia, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and whether these changes were reversible with treatment when they were diagnosed in early stages. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The study is conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, DVVPF’s Medical College, Ahmednagar on 200 anemic patients, 180 PIH patients and 650 GDM patients. Placentae were collected, stored in a 10% formalin solution. Morphological changes in respect to shape, weight, diameter, thickness, number of cotyledons and site of insertion of the cord are observed and documented. <strong>Results: </strong>In anemic patients who has undergone treatment, there were a smaller number of irregular (37/100) and round (63/100) round placentae were seen, whereas in the untreated anemic group, round (09/100) round and irregular (91/100) irregular placentae were seen. In PIH group with treatment, round (57/90) placentae and irregular (33/90) placentae were seen, whereas, in the untreated group, 13/100 round/oval placentae were observed and 77/100 irregular placentae were seen. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Morphology of placenta is on error mode in untreated anemia, PIH and GDM. Diagnosis in the first trimester and on consequent treatment till the delivery is resulting in decreasing of irregular morphology of placenta and wellbeing of newborns.</p> Mithil Potuganti, B. R. Zambare Copyright (c) 2020 Author Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A CT Scan Study Showing Prevalence of Haller Cells in Patients with Sinonasal Complaints <p><strong>Background: </strong>Anterior ethmoid cells that extend into the maxillary sinus roof are known as Haller cells. They are commonly seen on the floor of the orbit. They may cause sinusitis symptoms by blocking the infundibulum, may get infected and also sometimes complicate the Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Haller cells on CT scans in patients having sino-nasal complaints. <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>This was a descriptive observational study carried out on 150 patients who presented with various sino-nasal complaints and underwent a CT Scan in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Kolkata. Their CT scans were studied retrospectively for the presence of Haller cells. Radiological variations data were summarized by routine descriptive statistics namely counts and percentages for categorical variables. Fisher’s Exact Tests and were applied to calculate the ‘p’ value to find out any statistically significant difference between males and females. <strong>Results</strong>: Haller cells were found in 12% (18 cases) in the present study, 5.33% in males and 6.67% in females. ‘p’ value in this case was 0.616 on applying Fisher’s Exact test. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Anatomical variations of the paranasal sinus region like Haller cells are quite common and they must be searched for by the surgeons planning any endoscopic sinus surgery. This study attempted to provide the prevalence of the Haller cells in Eastern India which will definitely help the FESS surgery and its outcomes.</p> Raag Reeti, Md Jawed Akhtar, Avanish Kumar, Rishi Mani Srivastava Copyright (c) 2020 Author Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000