Umbilical Cord Changes in Anemia, Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

Umbilical Cord Changes in various pathologies

  • Mithil Potuganti Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, DVVPF's Medical College, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
  • B. R. Zambare Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shivaji College of Physiotherapy, Shivaji Nagar, Pune, India
Keywords: Umbilical Cord, Placenta, Anemia, Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


Background: The Umbilical cord (UC) structure is designed in such a way that it provides uninterrupted blood flow to the developing fetus even though it is influenced by uterine conditions and external forces throughout the pregnancy period. UC and placenta are the only structures, which nourish the fetus until term. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DVVPF’S Medical college and hospital. Results: In the GDM group without treatment, eccentric insertion is seen in 249 placentae and central insertion in 76 placentae. In the GDM group with treatment, central insertion is seen in 236 placentae and eccentric is seen in 89 patients. In the PIH group, without treatment, 22 central insertions and 68 eccentric insertions were observed. With treatment, PIH patients central insertions are seen in 76 and eccentric in 14. In the anemia group without treatment, 24 central insertions and 76 eccentric insertions are observed. Conclusion: On a concluding note, we observed in our study that, the pathological features observed in anemia, pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus are on a minimal note in treated patients after their onset, than in untreated patients. Various awareness programs constitutionalized by Governments and various NGO’s are bringing upon a desired change, but at the same time, intensity and frequency are to be increased.


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How to Cite
Mithil Potuganti, & B. R. Zambare. (2020). Umbilical Cord Changes in Anemia, Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. Academia Anatomica International, 6(2), 35-40.