Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of P.sacharosa, e.elatior and P.granatum aqueous extract on human myeloid leukaemia
Objective: This present study aimed to study the anti proliferative effects of aqueous extract of Pereskia sacharosa, Etlingera elatior and Punica granatum plants and to evaluate proapoptotic ability of the extract conducted on two myeloid leukemia cell lines, MV4-11 (Acute myeloid leukemia) and K562 (Chronic myeloid leukemia). Methods: MV4-11 and K562 cells were exposed various concentrations of the plants extracts; P.sacharosa (leaves), E.elatior (flowershoots) and P.granatum (peels). Cell proliferation assay and apoptosis assay of MV4-11 and K562 were performed. The cellular morphology of these cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. Flow-cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis with labeled Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Results: Extracts of P. sacharosa, E.elatior, and P.granatum shown significant inhibition of cell proliferation of MV4-11 and K562 in dose dependent pattern with IC50 values of 0.29 (0.1) mg/ml, 0.55 (0.06) mg/ml, 0.36 (0.04) mg/ml, and 0.25 (0.05) mg/ml, 0.35 (0.01) mg/ml and 0.5 (0.04) mg/ml, respectively. The extract also showed no cytotoxic effect on normal cell. In addition, induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in the cell treated with the plant extract by which P.granatum exerted a strongest apoptotic induction in K562 treated cell. However in MV4-11, apoptosis is higher in cell treated with P.sacharosa. E.elatior showed the lowest in apoptosis induction. The extracts also induced apoptotic-like morphological changes such as membrane blebbing, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation and cells shrinkage. Conclusion: This study showed that extract from P. sacharosa, E.elatior, and P.granatum inhibits cell proliferation in MV4-11 and K562 leukemic cells in dose dependent manner mainly via apoptosis mechanism. This preliminary data suggest that, the extracts deserve further investigation to confirm their chemopreventive effects.
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