Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-08-02T06:40:05+00:00 Dr. Nidhi Varshney Open Journal Systems <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Research (AJMR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;is an open-access, freely accessible, online and print quarterly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research on all medical specialties including ethical and social issues. AJMR is a gateway to enlighten the latest research/issues happening all around the world of medical and health sciences. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2277-7253 | Print ISSN: 2347-3398</strong></p> Efficacy of Alpha-1 Adrenergic Blockers in the Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 2019-06-13T13:29:33+00:00 Sudhir Sabharwal Narita Jamwal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the most common benign tumour in men. The present study was planned to assess quantitatively the symptom improvement with Terazosin and with Prazosin in patients with symptomatic BPH. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted on 30 patients. The patients were studied under two subgroups, allotted at random, each had 15 patients. The sub group A patients received prazosin GITS tablet and sub group B patients received Terazosin. The urinary symptom scores were measured by using AUA symptom index, comprising seven equally weighted questions addressing the severity of urinary symptoms. <strong>Results: </strong>The pre drug therapy symptom score in group A &amp; B were comparable and there was no significant difference between the two subgroup of patients (P &gt; .05). On comparison of improvement in AUA score between Group A and Group B, no significant difference was found (P &gt; .05). There was also no significant difference in improvement of obstructive and irritative subscores between the two sub groups. Group B patients had significant reduction of the post void residual urine following treatment. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prazosin GITS is an effective formulation of Prazosin, which ensures single daily use of this agent. Prazosin GITS and Terazosin are equally effective in improving the bothersome symptoms of BPH in symptomatic patients.</p> 2019-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study of Early Cholecystectomy and Interval Cholecystectomy in Acute Cholecystitis in a Tertiary Care Center. 2019-06-26T09:01:07+00:00 H. N Singh Tushar Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>The incidence of acute cholecystitis is gradually increasing throughout the world and also in India. 90-95 % of acute cholecystitis is related to gall stones. Earlier the management of acute cholecystitis was conservative followed by interval cholecystectomy. But in last 25 years, there have been many reports recommending early surgery as a treatment of choice. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted on 80 patients divided in two groups of 40 each with an idea to study the result of early surgery compared with delayed surgery. <strong>Results: </strong>Though the mean post-operative stay was almost equal in both groups. The total hospital stay in early surgery was 13.28 days and that in delayed surgery was 21.54. In early surgery group majority of cases there was no technical difficulty rather good delineation of cystic duct-CBD junction as edema provided a plane of cleavage. In delayed surgery operative difficulties were found in 18 cases due to much adhesion in calot’s triangle. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>So, early surgery was found to be more economical with less hospital stay with minimum morbidity than delayed surgery in acute cholecystitis.</p> 2019-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Surgical Treatment of Cystic Swellings of Scrotum and its Management: A Clinico-Pathological Study 2019-06-20T02:08:46+00:00 Jasvinder Singh Amrit Pal Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>The treatment of cystic swellings of scrotum are one among the common surgical problem in all age group. Objective of this study is to spot the cause, mode of presentation, various modalities of treatment and outcome of these with mimnimal complications. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 110 cases of cystic swellings of scrotum fulfilling the methodology criteria’s were subjected to preformatted study. Final diagnosis was made with Clinical examination and Ultrasound. All 110 cases were treated surgically. <strong>Results: </strong>Most of the patients were in age group of 20-75 years , presenting feature being scrotal swelling as a main complaint in 60% of cases, majority of them were right sided (64%), majority of them presented with in a year, 40% presented with in first 6 months and 30% in next 6 months. Primary hydrocele was the commonest cystic swelling (60%), followed by epididymal cyst, sebaceous cyst, haematocoele, pyocoele. Lord’s plication was the procedure, which was associated with early discharge of the patient and least post-operative complications. Most of the patients were discharged around 8th Post-operative day. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Primary hydrocoele was the commonest cystic swellings of scrotum. Most of the cystic swellings were treated surgically with good results. Lord’s plication procedure was the least to have post-operative complication.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repairs: Plug and Patch Versus Lichtenstein Mesh Repair Technique: A Teaching Hospital Based Study 2019-07-27T09:57:30+00:00 Dharam Vir Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed general surgical procedures worldwide. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>50 subjects, of type 1, 2 and 3 inguinal hernias, according to Gilbert's classification of groin hernias, admitted in the surgical unit in the form of randomized controlled trial of plug and patch versus lichtenstein mesh repair technique in two groups of randomly selected 25 cases of inguinal hernias each. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of total fifty (50) patients, 35 (70%) patients were having right indirect inguinal hernia, 15 (30%) patients were having left indirect inguinal hernias and none was having bilateral inguinal hernias. From the above data it is clearly shown that there is much higher incidence of right sided indirect inguinal hernias as compared to the left sided indirect inguinal hernias. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Lichtenstein and plug and patch inguinal hernia repair, are equally good in terms of negligible intra-operative, post-operative complications and overall outcome with good patient compliance and satisfaction.</p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigations of Chronic Kidney Disease Associations with Hip Fracture Incidence and Mortality in India. 2019-06-20T02:16:22+00:00 Praveen Agarwal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hip fracture is very common in patients with ESRD. The risk has been estimated to be 4.4 to 14 times greater than that of the general population. KD and hip fracture are important public health problems that share multiple risk factors. Both are more common in older individuals and patients with diabetes. In addition, CKD and low bone mineral density (BMD), a major risk factor for hip fracture, are highly coincident. Therefore, the study aim was to clarify the association of CKD with hip fracture incidence and mortality. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Present study included 700 participants which were divided into two groups according to kidney disease. Out of 700 subjects, 100 subjects with CKD were included in group I whereas, 600 subjects without CKD were included in group II. We chose femoral neck BMD as the main measurement of hip BMD in our analysis because this region is most predictive for hip fracture. We chose to use the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to calculate the estimated GFR (eGFR). <strong>Results: </strong>It is interesting that when the demographic characteristics of the hip fracture populations were evaluated, there was an association among age, history of hip fracture, and prevalence of CKD. In the participants (aged 50 to 74), the prevalence of CKD was approximately three-fold higher in the group with a history of hip fracture than in the group without a hip fracture (12% versus 4%; P&lt;0.01). However, in older participants (older than 75 yr), the prevalence of CKD was the same regardless of hip fracture history. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>By using different measures of hip fracture incidence and mortality, we have demonstrated why other studies have shown mixed associations between CKD and hip fracture. Hip fracture incidence was higher in individuals with CKD compared with those with normal eGFR particularly where measured with admissions. However, following a hip fracture, CKD did not increase post-hip fracture mortality except in those with CKD of various stages. Nonetheless, a reduction in hip fracture incidence in those with CKD would reduce the number of deaths after hip fracture in the Indian population.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of Distribution of Orthopaedic Morbidities among Outdoor Patients in a Medical College in Bihar 2019-06-25T13:52:54+00:00 Krishna Nand Prasad Gupta <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pattern and prevalence of orthopaedic morbidities varies from region to region, due to difference in environmental, racial and geographic factors. Orthopaedic Outpatient Department (OPD) is an important part of health care system. This study was done to find out the orthopaedic morbidities in OPD of a tertiary care centre in Bihar. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>It was an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in the outpatient department of ANMMCH, Gaya, Bihar. All the new patients more than 18 years of age were studied for one year. Prescriptions were collected from patients. No follow up of prescription was done. <strong>Results: </strong>800 prescriptions were analysed. Male patients (63.7%) attended more than female patients (36.3%). Majority of patients came from 18-30 years age group. Low back pain was most common (28.9%) morbidity followed by osteoarthritis (11.9%), cervical spondylosis (8.7%). Orthopedic morbidities are mostly contributed by trauma (38.75%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Low back pain is the common problem among patients attended Orthopaedic OPD. Larger nationwide community based studies are required to know the extent of the orthopaedic morbidities and formulate better health policies.</p> 2019-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Prevalence of Osteoporotic Fractures among Females of Known Population: A Observational Study 2019-07-10T13:48:29+00:00 Yusuf Ali Deoda Bimla Choudhary Prashant Garhwal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans, representing a major public health problem. Hence; we planned the present study to assess prevalence of osteoporotic fractures among females of known population. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 50 females were included in the present study. Complete demographic of all the subjects was obtained.&nbsp; Detailed history of presence or absence of osteoporotic fractures was obtained. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>The overall incidence of osteoporotic fractures in the present study was 36 percent. Significantly higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures was seen with increasing age. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Significantly high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures among elderly females is seen.</p> 2019-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study to Evaluate the Role of Hypokalemia in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Prospective Hospital Based Study 2019-05-10T05:59:29+00:00 Kantilal Meghwal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common comorbidity following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and CHF complicating AMI has an unfavourable outcome. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between low serum potassium levels and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Hence; under the light of above obtained results, we planned the present study to assess the role of hypokalemia in AMI patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> A total of 38 AMI patients and 38 healthy controls were included in the present study. Only patients within the age group of 20 years to 60 years were included. Detailed demographic and clinical data of all the subjects was obtained. Fresh blood samples were obtained from all the subjects and were sent to the laboratory for assessment. Serum potassium levels were analyzed by using an auto-analyzer. <strong>Results: </strong>Mean serum potassium levels among the subjects of the AMI group was found to be 85.6 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than that of mean serum potassium levels of the subjects of the control group, which was found to&nbsp; be 93.4 mmol/L. 20 subjects of the AMI group had hypokalemia. Therefore, prevalence of hypokalemia among the subjects of the AMI group was 52.6%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>AMI patients are significantly associated with hypokalemia, thereby, indicating its role in the pathogenesis of the disease.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Importance of EEG Abnormalities Detection in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Combined Approach 2019-05-10T09:32:20+00:00 Jagdeesh Chandra Kookna INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Arvind Vyas INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Jitendra Acharya INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Febrile seizures (FS) are the common disorder in 3-month- to 6-year-old children, with an incidence varying between 2% and 5%. It is associated with fever, without evidence of intracranial infection or a definite cause. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> Selection of cases of febrile seizure were done according to guidelines definition given by national institute of health consensus (NIH) and the International League against epilepsy. 50 Children with febrile seizure admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit at S. P. Medical College &amp; Hospital were selected for the study. EEG was done with sedation. <strong>Results: </strong>Most common EEG abnormality is slow waves in 35% followed by sharp waves in 30 %. Generalized EEG abnormality is seen in 64%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most common epileptiform discharge was of generalized epileptiform activity, and most common EEG abnormality is slow waves.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Assess the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia among Known Population 2019-06-04T15:03:00+00:00 Hanuman Ram Choudhary Mahipal Choudhary <p><strong>Background: </strong>Iron deficiency anemia is a form of anemia due to the lack of sufficient iron to form normal red blood cells. Iron deficiency, the most common cause, is responsible for 50% of all anemias. Hence; we assessed the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among known population. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present research aimed for evaluating the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia. Sample size included assessment of a total of 220 patients who reported to the department of internal medicine of the hospital for routine medical checkup.&nbsp; A self-framed questionnaire was made and was given to all the subjects for collecting the demographic details. Blood samples were obtained from all the subjects and were sent to central laboratory for the assessment of blood hemoglobin levels. WHO criteria, described in the past literature, was used for categorizing the subjects with presence of iron deficiency anemia. All the results were analyzed by SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>Overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the present study was found to be 11.36 percent.&nbsp; Majority of the subjects with iron deficiency anemia were found to be more than 35 years of age. Iron deficiency anemia was found to be more common among females and among illiterates. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Iron deficiency anemia is a frequency encountered pathologic condition among general population, with especially high prevalence among females and illiterate population.</p> 2019-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Epilepsia Partialis Continua as a Symptom of Alcohol Withdrawal in a Type 2 Diabetic Patient. 2019-06-16T09:27:32+00:00 Chandan Kumar INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Pal Satyajit Singh Athwal INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Akanksha Gulati INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Yaqoob Khan INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Yuvraj Singh INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p>Epilepsia partialis continua is a rare form of focal epilepsy or focal status epilepticus which mostly involves motor component. It leads to arrhythmic muscle jerks for a prolonged period of time. It can present as a single episode or multiple repetitive episodes. There are multiple etiological factors including vascular lesions and tumors. Presenting as alcohol withdrawal in a type 2 Diabetic patient makes it a rare phenomenon. We report a case of 55-year-old male with Epilepsia partialis continua after alcohol abstinence. Familiarity and diagnosis of this rare event is important because the treatment depends on the underlying etiology.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of Red Cell Distribution Width and RBC Indices in Iron Deficiency Anemia 2019-07-05T16:31:32+00:00 Sankar Kalairajan <p><strong>Background: </strong>Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world. The etiological method of classification involves anemias due to impaired red cell production, hemolytic anemia due to increased red cell destruction and anemia due to blood loss in cases of trauma or injuries. In Indian anemia affects females (9.9%) more than males (7.8%). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a retrospective type of study in which we evaluated 100 cases of microcytic anemia. The primary objective of this study was to explore the role of red cell distribution width (RDW) in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The cut off point for hemoglobin (Hb), MCV, RDW and serum ferritin were taken according to normal reference ranges for both sexes and different age groups, from Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology. <strong>Results: </strong>Amongst data of 62, maximum number of females have their hemoglobin in the range of 10-9.1 and amongst data of 38 males, maximum number of males have their hemoglobin in the range of either 7-6.1 or 5-2.&nbsp; Microcytic hypochromic anemia was seen in 17 out of 100 anemic patients. Its common causes are iron deficiency, sideroblastic, chronic disease, inflammation, lead poisoning and thalassemia trait. Normochromic normocytic anemia was recorded in 56 patients among them 37 subjects were females while 19 subjects were males. Hyperchromic anemia was observed in 9 patients (5 females and 4 males). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Present study underlined the importance and role of RDW in diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. In a scenario of high prevalence of anemia in our country and even higher costs of specialized tests, the need to adopt cost effective, accurate and efficient measures is required. Since different etiologic factors result in characteristically different red cell morphology, the clinician can properly plan the management of a patient with an anemia if the blood counts are interpreted according to red cell indices.</p> 2019-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## To Study of Spectrum of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Western Rajasthan 2019-07-14T05:26:59+00:00 Praveen Kumar Garg Taruna Choudhary Bharat Gomtiwall <p><strong>Background: </strong>Inflammatory bowel disease denotes a group of disorders characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation, the etiology of which is unknown. In India Crohn’s disease was thought to be uncommon and often treated as tuberculosis. The aim of this study the spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease in patients attending associated group of Hospitals, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Western Rajasthan. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was done on 210 patients presenting with history suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease. All of these patients were evaluated to confirm the diagnosis of IBD and were then differentiated between ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and indeterminate colitis. Those subjects already diagnosed with IBD were reviewed and evidences supporting IBD were accepted as cases in study. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 2500 patients attended in gastroenterology clinic, out of which 210 patients were having symptoms suggestive of IBD. A total of 129 patients were diagnosed as IBD cases, in which 114 (88.37%) were of ulcerative colitis and 15 (11.62%) of Crohn’s disease. Maximum number of UC patients i.e. 84 (73.68%) and 12 (80%) of CD patients were needed indefinite medical therapy to maintain remission of disease. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that overall IBD is more common than expected in our community and Crohn’s disease is being recognized now a days.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Qualitative Explorative Study from Service Providers’ Perspective of Reasons Influencing Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance, In Dire Dawa City Administration, East Ethiopia 2019-07-19T14:06:47+00:00 Fitsum Berhane Aliya Nuri Adugna Endale Dessalegn Bekele <p><strong>Background: </strong>The timing of first Antenatal Care (ANC) attendance is referred to be late when a pregnant woman starts her first ANC booking after 16 weeks of gestational age and is referred early if she starts before 16 weeks of gestation. Though there is marked improvement in ANC coverage, more than half of the pregnant women in Dire Dawa city initiate their first ANC attendance late.Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the reasons that influence the timing of First Antenatal Care booking in public health facilities of Dire Dawa city Administration, from ANC service providers’ perspective. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Ten ANC service providing professionals from 10 public health facilities of Dire Dawa city Administration who were selected using purposive convenience sampling technique were involved in this qualitative explorative study that employed phenomenology study design to collect data of&nbsp; in-depth interviews. The tape recorded data were transcribed and manually analyzed using colaizzi's data analysis matrix method. <strong>Results: </strong>Five themes emerged as reasons for late initiation of first ANC booking: poor maternal knowledge,noninvolvement of spouse in decision making of ANC attendance, unplanned and/or unwanted pregnancy, non courteous and non-empathic service providers&nbsp; and past maternal negative reproductive experiences. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>These five identified reasons of late first ANC attendance problems could be minimized through strategic interventions that improve women`s knowledge and practice towards early initiation of first ANC booking and family planning utilization, provision of counseling services to both partners and provision of refreshing in service trainings to health professions about considerations of ethical issues. Conducting further research on this matter is also recommended.</p> 2019-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Dengue Fever in Tertiary Centre 2019-07-27T09:46:58+00:00 Sundeep Singla Mamta Singla Sanjeev Singla Parmajeet Singh Atul Kumar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue is an acute febrile disease in the tropical and subtropical regions. There is a steady rise in Dengue outbreaks in India. The present study describes clinical and laboratory findings of serologically confirmed hospitalized cases of dengue fever. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Prospective study was done in seropositive hospitalized adult patients in Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, U.P. 84 patients were analyzed. Clinical features, Haematological and Biochemical parameters were noted. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 84 patients studied, 51 were male and 33 were female. The fever was present in all patients, followed by Anorexia in 65 (77.38%), Vomiting in 56 (66.66%), Myalgia in 52 (61.90%), Headache in 37 (44.04%), Joint pain in 25 (29.76%), Retrobulbar pain in 24 (28.57%) and Rashes in 18 (21.42%) patients. Abdominal pain was present in 11 (13.09%), Hepatomegaly in 10 (11.90%), Pleural effusion in 6 (7.14%) and Ascites in 9 patients (10.71%). Shock was present in 5 (5.95%) and bleeding in 3 (3.57%) patients. Significant derangement in platelet count was noted. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The problem of Dengue fever is on continuous rise. It may be due to huge population, poor sanitation, waste management policies, lack of medical facilities in the rural population and inadequate mosquito control. So, a continuous sero-epidemiological surveillance, early diagnosis, timely and proper fluid management can reduce its complications, outbreaks and mortality.</p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study Of Efficacy Of 10% KOH, 50% Trichloroacetic Acid And 25% Podophyllin For The Treatment Of Genital Molluscum In Females 2019-06-19T12:24:52+00:00 Shweta Amar INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Molluscum contagiosum is caused by MC virus, the largest human virus and sole member of genus molluscipox. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct person-to-person contact or via contact with infected objects. Sexually active adults are more prone to develop it in genital area due to sexual transmission. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A randomized comparative therapeutic study was conducted from November 2017 to October 2018. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 60 female patients with genital molluscum were enrolled in the study. The average age of the patients was 25.6 yrs. 66% presented less than 10 lesions, 28% presented from 10 to 20 lesions, and 6% presented more than 20 lesions at the initial examination. The results showed that the mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 6.75 with KOH, from 20.79 to 4.31 with TCA and from 20.49 to 4.1 with 25% podophyllin at the end of 4 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 13 (65%) patients with 10% KOH, 15 (75%) patients with TCA, and in 11 (55%) patients with 25% podophyllin. Minor side effects were seen in 11 (55%) patients on TCA, 12 (60%) patients on KOH and 16 (80%) patients on podophyllin. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>All the three modalities i.e. 10% KOH, 50% TCA and 25% podophyllin are effective local therapies for the treatment of genital molluscum.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls: A Burning Issue 2019-06-25T13:40:27+00:00 Kamal Chandrika Jampana INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dysmenorrhea, defined as painful cramps that occur with menstruation, is the most common gynecologic problem in women of all ages and races and one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. Painful menses in women or dysmenorrhea is a very frequently observed gynecologic problem. The true incidence and prevalence of dysmenorrhea are not clearly established in India. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The data were collected from the schools and colleges present in Krishna district. Female medical students and a female medico-social worker were trained for this study. Three schools and three colleges were randomly selected and from this all the girls who were willing to participate and in the age group of 14-19 years were included in the study. <strong>Results: </strong>The overall prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 68% (72.3% and 63.3% in the urban and rural areas respectively). The difference in the prevalence of the urban and rural adolescent girls (study subjects) is not significant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dysmenorrhoea is a very common problem. A number of physical and emotional symptoms are associated with dysmenorrhea and it also affects the quality of life of girls to a great extent.</p> 2019-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Histopathogical Changes in Gallbladder Mucosa in Gallbladder Stone Patients: An Institutional Based Prospective Study 2019-05-10T09:09:21+00:00 Seema Gupta Shweta Khandelwal Vandana Porwal Deepali Jain <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mucus, calcium&nbsp;&nbsp; and lipids act&nbsp; together&nbsp; and lead to the formation of&nbsp; the gallstones. Gallbladder and biliary tract epithelium is unprotected from the high concentrations of&nbsp; harmful compounds both exogenous and endogenous that are excreted into the primary bile. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the histopathogical Changes in Gallbladder Mucosa in Gallbladder Stone Patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. For histopathological examination, Gall bladder was sectioned from neck to fundus and carefully washed with 0.15 N saline. All the data thus obtained was arranged in a tabulated form and analysed using SPSS software. Percentage of the whole data was calculated. <strong>Results: </strong>There were a combination of alterations observed in single bladder, some part was normal while the other showed signs of hyperplasia. Normal epithelium was seen in 20% cases, there were 44.7% cases that showed epithelial hyperplasia. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pathological alteration on the epithelium of gall bladder plays a pivotal role in the gall stone formation and if unmanaged or untreated it can lead to dysplastic changes and ultimately carcinoma in situ.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Prospective Study to Assess the Bone Marrow Aspiration for Findings of Patients with Hematological Disorders 2019-06-13T12:41:37+00:00 Sushma Singh Rathore INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Examination of bone&nbsp; marrow&nbsp;&nbsp; is&nbsp; beneficial procedure for&nbsp; the&nbsp; diagnosis&nbsp; of hematological and non-hematological diseases. Bone&nbsp;&nbsp; marrow&nbsp;&nbsp; aspiration singly&nbsp;&nbsp; is&nbsp;&nbsp; usually sufficive&nbsp; for the&nbsp; diagnosis of&nbsp; nutritional&nbsp; anemia,&nbsp; majority&nbsp; of&nbsp; the acute&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; leukemia&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Immune &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;thrombocytic disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the bone marrow aspiration findings amongst subjects with hematological disorders. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present cross sectional study was conducted in the department of pathology, Government Medical College, Dungarpur, Rajasthan (India) during a period of 2 years. Amongst all the subjects, peripheral&nbsp; smears,&nbsp; reticulocyte&nbsp; counts, sickling&nbsp; test&nbsp; and&nbsp; hemogram&nbsp; were&nbsp; obtained. Special stains Periodic acid Schiff staining was done for all subjects with acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and&nbsp; Gaucher’s&nbsp; disorder.&nbsp; Block positivity&nbsp; was shown&nbsp; amongst&nbsp; ALL&nbsp; cases.&nbsp; In subjects with Gaucher’s&nbsp; disorder,&nbsp; Gaucher&nbsp; cells showed&nbsp;&nbsp; wrinkled&nbsp;&nbsp; tissue&nbsp;&nbsp; paper&nbsp;&nbsp; appearance&nbsp;&nbsp; using&nbsp;&nbsp; PAS staining. All the data thus obtained was arranged in a tabulated form and analyzed using SPSS software. Percentage of all the data was obtained. <strong>Results: </strong>The present study bone marrow aspiration was performed amongst 110 subjects and bone marrow biopsy was performed amongst 54 subjects. There were 48.2% cases of anemia, 14.5% (n=16) cases of acute leukemia. In 10.9% of cases myeloproliferative disorders were observed and 1.8% cases had myelodysplastic syndrome. There were 20.4% cases of hyoplastic anemia. There were 11.1% subjects that showed normal results. NHL deposits and myelofibrosis was seen in 5.6% cases each. ALL was diagnosed in 1 case. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Aspiration of bone marrow is important for diagnosing, determining the prognosis and therapeutic response of different types of hematological and non hematological conditions.</p> 2019-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cytological Pattern of Papanicolaou Smears in a Tertiary Care Centre of Bihar, India 2019-06-25T13:43:55+00:00 Naresh Kumar Srivastava <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cervical cancer is the most common although preventable cancer of Indian females. It does not develop suddenly from normal epithelium but is presented by a spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia. Pap smear is an ideal screening method and low cost effective test to detect intraepithelial neoplasia especially in developing countries although it has limitations and needs confirmation by histopathology. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of cervical lesions using conventional Pap smear method. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>It was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care institute of Rohtas, Bihar. The data of two years was collected from medical records department. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 664 smears, 397 (59.79%) were abnormal Pap smears, 169 (25.45%) were normal Pap smears while 98 (14.76 %%) smears had inadequate sample material to be examined. Out of 397 abnormal smears, 362 (91.18%) smears reported to have inflammatory/reactive changes whereas 10 (2.51%) had atrophic changes in Pap smear and abnormality in epithelial cell was reported in 25 (6.29%) smears. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pap smear is an effective screening procedure to detect cervical cytological abnormalities.&nbsp; Routine cytological screening by Pap smear should be offered to all women above 19 years or within 3 years of sexual activity. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness about the disease among females and skills of health care workers should be honed for preparation of Pap smears.</p> 2019-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Small Dose Clonidine Prolongs Post-Operative Analgesia after Sciatic –Femoral Nerve Block with 0.75% Ropivacaine for Foot Surgery: A Hospital Based Study 2019-05-10T09:18:22+00:00 Ramesh Maheshwari Aashish Naroliya <p><strong>Background: </strong>To understand the effect of small dose clonidine with 0.75% ropivacaine for foot surgery, Hallux valgus repair is a minor surgical procedure, which leads to severe pain post surgicaly. For this reason, regional anaesthesia along with long-acting local anaesthetics has been advised. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> All patients were screened for any other systemic disorder. Any patients with diabetes, hypertension or thyroid issues were also not included in the study. Patients of age group 18-75 were included in the surgery. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Group A patients (16 patients) were injected with 1 μg/kg clonidine to 0.75% ropivacaine during combined sciatic-femoral nerve block for the repair of hallux valgus, whereas group B patients (16 patients) were injected with only 0.75% ropivacaine during the repair procedure. <strong>Results: </strong>It was observed that, not much difference was seen in the time required to achieve surgical anaesthesia between the patients receiving only 0.75% ropivacaine which was 10 minutes approx. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>As a result of this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study demonstrate that adding 1 μg/kg clonidine to 0.75% ropivacaine has no major effect on onset time and quality of combined sciatic-femoral nerve block.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparison of Perioperative Hemodynamic Stability with Amlodipine and Telmisartan during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in known Hypertensive Patients 2019-07-27T09:31:13+00:00 Mandeep Manohar Harison Madia Atul Kumar Singh Subhdeep Manohar Wrangler Richi Ram Badan Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>There are many antihypertensive agents available for optimal control of elevated blood pressure. The agent with better safety profile and minimal side effects are the agents of choice. The aim of this study is to compare the perioperative hemodynamics stability with Amlodipine and Telmisartan during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in known hypertensive patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A comparative, prospective, randomized interventional study was conducted in 60 known hypertensive patients of either sex of ASA PS II and III class, aged 40-70 years undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly allocated to Group A: taking Amlodipine 5 mg once daily, and Group B: taking Telmisartan 40 mg once daily. Hemodynamic monitoring was done including heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) as cardiac marker. <strong>Results: </strong>Among the hemodynamic variables there was significant difference (p-value&lt;0.05) in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, brain natriuretic peptide. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure was better controlled in patients receiving Telmisartan. Rise in BNP level was significantly less during intraoperative period in patients receiving Telmisartan.&nbsp; HR, SBP, DBP and demographic profile were comparable between two groups. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>One of the major responsibility of anaesthesiologist is to maintain hemodynamic stability during intra-operative and post-operative period. Hemodynamic stability if not managed successfully particularly in hypertensive patients can lead to poor outcomes during intra-operative and post-operative period. Antihypertensive medications are administered for at least 1-2 weeks for returning of normal autoregulation and optimum blood pressure control. Telmisartan has better control over blood pressure in comparison to amlodipine.</p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of Complications that Arise after DT and FCLT in the Treatment of Post-Acne Scars 2019-05-23T17:29:03+00:00 Dr Nikhita Kallappa H Karana Malhotra Francis Abel Kunnath <p><strong>Background: </strong>Acne vulgaris is a common chronic skin disease involving blockage and/or inflammation of pilosebaceous units (hair follicles and their accompanying sebaceous gland). Acne can present - non-inflammatory lesions (open and closed comedones), inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodules), and varying degrees of scarring or a mixture of both, affecting mostly the face but also the back and chest. Acne leads to significant morbidity that is associated with residual scarring and psychological disturbances such as poor self-image, depression, and anxiety, which leads to a negative impact on quality of life. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Total 200 patients divided into two groups of 100 each. One group was treated with dermaroller every four weeks for a period of 24 weeks and the other group was treated with fractional CO2&nbsp; laser again every four weeks for a period of 24 weeks. <strong>Results: </strong>Six patients in dermaroller and nine patients in fractional CO2 laser group developed hyperpigmentation post procedure. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Itching is not seen as a complication in the treatment with derma-roller, but in case of fractional CO2 laser group, a very small percentage of patients experienced itching a few days after the treatment due to peeling off of the scab that was formed after treatment.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral Mucosal Lesions in Psoriasis Patients: A Hospital Based Study 2019-06-25T13:58:58+00:00 Abhishek Kumar Jha INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Oral lesions in dermatological diseases may be the early aspects of any disease manifestation and occasionally lesions occur simultaneously in the skin as well as mucous membrane. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present work was designed as a prospective tertiary urban hospital based, case control study during the period from February 2018 to January 2019. The association between studied variables was calculated using descriptive statistics tests such as Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, and P &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 120 psoriasis patients, 55 males (45.88%) and 65 females (54.16%) were included in the study. The age of the patients ranged from 5 years to 56 years (mean age 24.6 years). The most common form of psoriasis was chronic plaque form (Psoriasis Vulgaris) observed in 85 cases. The majority of patients (72.56 %) were suffering from a mild form of the disease. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score of most patients (72.56%) were below 10. The oral lesion was seen in 31 cases (25.83%) of which fissured tongue and geographic tongue were the most common oral lesions identified. Of total 100 psoriatic patients, 45 cases were male, and 55 were female. Mean age of patients was 37.71 years. observed in 85 cases. The majority of patients (70 %) were suffering from a mild form of the disease. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score of most patients were below. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study highlights the prevalence of oral lesions such as fissured tongue and geographic tongue is higher in psoriatic patients.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Dermatophyte Infections in Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mathura 2019-08-02T06:40:05+00:00 Harsh Sharma Rakesh Kumar Chawla <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dermatophytosis is one of the most common cutaneous fungal infections of public health concern affecting children, adolescents and adults. Thus, the present study was undertaken to assess the clinico-epidemiological profile of dermatophyte infections in children. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted among 80 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytoses. Patients under antifungal treatment for &gt;4 weeks and non-dermatophytic fungal infections were excluded from the study. Samples were collected from affected lesions. The statistical analysis was done using chi square test and p value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant. <strong>Results: </strong>Most common age group in the study was 8-10 years. Tinea cruris was observed most common dermatophyte condition in boys whereas Tinea unguium was predominant in girls. Tinea unguium infections were common in age group 8-10 years. This study shows that most dermatophyte infections were prevalent in age group of 8-10 years. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There are several risk factors which can cause dermatophytoses. Poor hygiene and topical steroid usage were the major risk factors which was responsible for spreading dermatophytoses. People should be educated regarding personal hygiene and sanitary control to reduce the risk of dermatophytoses.</p> 2019-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Mifepristone versus GNRH Analogue in the Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma- A Comparative Study 2019-05-30T13:31:09+00:00 Georgy Joy Eralil INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM Junaid Naina M INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM T. N. Kumar INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Uterine fibroids also called as uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the uterus. Most women develop one or more uterine leiomyoma during their reproductive years. Hence; we assessed the efficacy of Mifepristone 25mg versus Inj.Leuprolide acetate 3.75mg in reducing size of uterine myoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was planned for detecting difference of 15 percent in the outcome variables between the two groups and Standard deviation of 156.00, with 90% statistical power and 5% level of significance, the sample size was calculated to be 70 for the study. The study subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 35 patients each. Group 1: Patients treated with Tablet Mifepristone 25mg once daily for 3 months; Group 2: Patients treated with Inj. Leuprolide acetate depot preparation 3.75mg IM once a month for 3 months. Demographic data, history, clinical examination, details of drug prescription, laboratory investigations and imaging reports were recorded in the study proforma. Various clinical assessment parameters were assessed. <strong>Results: </strong>After three months of treatment, there was a marked relief with significant decrease in visual analog scale score in both the groups (p &lt;0.001). 21 patients (60%) in group 1 and 25 patients (71%) in group 2 presented with mild anemia at the beginning of the study. After three months of treatment, there was a significant (p &lt;0.001) rise in the hemoglobin and hematocrit values in both the groups. There was an increase in mean hemoglobin level by 2.9gm/dl in mifepristone group and 3gm/dl in leuprolide group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Treatment with either mifepristone or leuprolide acetate in uterine leiomyoma is safe and causes significant but temporary reductions in uterine size and myoma related symptoms.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Risk Factors and Changes in Liver Enzymes among the Patients with Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatitis: A Teaching Hospital Based Study 2019-06-19T15:20:48+00:00 Omparkash Dhania INFO@AIJOURNALS.COM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem despite the availability of highly efficacious treatment for decades. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Tuberculosis was diagnosed through bacteriological and histopathological methods. Bacteriological testing was based on three sputum samples or if the patient could not give the sample, three gastric aspiration samples were examined. The sputum were evaluated for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl–Neelsen staining. <strong>Results: </strong>The patients with DIH, one patient were treated with five anti-TB drugs because of relapse or treatment failure; 47% had ALT, AST ≥ 6 times of ULN. These patients had loss of appetite (80%), icterus (20%), nausea (80%), vomiting (50%), malaise (45%), right upper quadrant tenderness (24%), and loss of consciousness (2%). Liver enzyme levels were normal after four to 30 days. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The frequency of DIH in the current study was higher than those of other studies, similar to other reports, most of the TB cases in which hepatotoxicity developed occurred in the subjects above 51 years old and a lot of them occurred after the first month of treatment.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Detection of Rifampicin and Isoniazid Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Their Associated Mutation Pattern From Smear Positive Sputum Samples From a Tertiary Care Centre of West U.P. 2019-07-10T12:32:52+00:00 Mazher Maqusood info@aijournals.coM Umar Farooq info@aijournals.coM Sana Nudrat info@aijournals.coM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Delayed diagnosis and treatment done on its basis has been proven to be a factor causing increase in rate of MDR TB. So we used GenoType MTBDR plus assay® in order to determine rate of MDR-TB, Isoniazid and Rifampicin mono resistance and common mutation pattern associated with them from our area in order to provide better patient care and reduce rate of MDR-TB. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a cross sectional prospective study comprising of 150 smear positive sputum samples collected during period of 1½ years from January 2018 to April 2019. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of total 150 smear positive samples 97 were from male patients and 53 from female patients. Rate of MDR TB found was 18/150 (12%), rifampicin mono resistance and isoniazid mono resistance was 10/150 (6.6%) and 13/150 (8.6%) respectively. Highest percentage of MDR TB was seen among defaulter cases (27.3%) followed by failure cases (25%) and relapse cases (12.5%). Mutation pattern most commonly reported for rifampicin is S531L in <em>rpoB</em> gene at codon 530-533 and for isoniazid was S315T1 in <em>katG</em> gene at codon 315. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Problem of MDR-TB is continuously rising, so rapid detection of TB along with drug sensitivity is the need of hour and should be given utmost priority for END TB strategy. The GenoType MTBDR plus (LPAs) assay approved by world health organization is highly specific (≥99%) and sensitive (≥97%) diagnostic test for the detection of first line drugs resistance and is a rapid and reliable diagnostic tool.</p> 2019-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients with Myopia. 2019-07-10T13:26:26+00:00 Archana Pushpakaran info@aijournals.coM Meenu C Jacob info@aijournals.coM Sedhu P.A info@aijournals.coM Cyriac Kurian info@aijournals.coM <p><strong>Background: </strong>Myopia is a condition of the eye that makes it difficult to see distant objects. The present study was conducted to assess prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in patients with myopia. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This cross- sectional study was conducted in outpatient Department of Ophthalmology, Sree Narayana institute of Medical Sciences. A minimum of 100 patients with myopia were included in the study. Prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in patients with myopia was recorded. <strong>Results: </strong>In right eye, patients with IOP between 8-21 is 84%, &gt; 21 is 16%. In left eye, patients with IOP between 8-21 is 85%, &gt; 21 is 15%. In myopic patients, 15% of patients had POAG, 1% with ACG. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the adult population worldwide, is a progressive optic neuropathy. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most commonly reported type of glaucoma in population based prevalence studies worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well-known major risk factor for POAG.</p> 2019-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of Serum Lipids Levels in Patients of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy and Without Retinopathy 2019-07-13T06:09:08+00:00 Rachana Gahlawat Dinesh Narain Saksena <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetic retinopathy is a major micro-vascular complication of diabetes accounting for its leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Assessing the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy, particularly modified risk factors, is important for early intervention to reduce the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Twenty eight Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without any signs of retinopathy were identified from outpatient services of department of Medicine and Twenty eight Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy were identified from outpatient services of department of Ophthalmology along with Twenty eight healthy subjects were taken as controls. <strong>Results: </strong>Increased levels of Triglycerides and High density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in both set of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (with or without diabetic retinopathy) as compared to the healthy subjects which were statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with the increased incidence in diabetes mellitus subjects.</p> 2019-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation and Comparison of IMRT versus 3DCRT for Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation 2019-07-11T01:51:13+00:00 Pritanjali Singh Vinita Kumari Pawan Kumar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females worldwide. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate and compare IMRT and 3DCRT for post-mastectomy chest wall irradiation. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> A total of 30 subjects were included in the present study. Adjuvant radiotherapy was planned in all the subjects to the chest wall. A Lead marker was used for marking the scar sites, drain sites and breast borders. Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) simulation and treatment was carried out in all the patients. Generation of Planning Target Volume (PTV) was done followed by contouring of organs at risk (OAR). 15 subjects were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and 15 subjects were with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Calculation of conformity index (CI) was done as per criteria previously described in the literature. Calculation of mean dose volume of ipsilateral lung and heart was done. All the results were summarized and analysed by SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>Significant results were obtained while comparing the Dmean (Gy) for heart and lungs in between the 3DCRT group and the IMRT group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In comparison to 3DCRT, among post-mastectomy left sided breast cancer patients, IMRT offered significant reduction in the dose volume of the ipsilateral lung and heart.</p> 2019-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characteristics and Outcomes of Breast Cancer- Retrospective Analysis from a Tertiary Center in India. 2019-07-14T04:31:03+00:00 Vidhya R Kalaichelvi K Suresh Kumar S Raja G Karthik R <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and globally and the&nbsp; leading cause of cancer mortality among females. In India, the locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) constitutes 50 to 60% of the patients with Luminal A and Luminal B subtype, 16.7% HER2neu positive and 29.8% triple negative. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, RGGGH, Chennai from January 2014 to December 2016 were included in the study. Six hundred and twelve early and LABC patients were analyzed. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 612 patients, 315 (42.8%) were had early breast cancer and 297 (40.4%) were had locally advanced breast cancer. Among them 30.7% luminal subtype, 11.4% triple positive, 13.7% HER2 positive, 25.6% triple negative and 17.5% had unknown status. The overall mean DFS and OS in early breast cancer was 57months and 58 months respectively and locally advanced breast cancer was 51months and 52.5 months respectively. <strong>Discussion:</strong> Prevalence of TNBC in India is considerably higher compared with Western populations with Indian trial having 51.2% HR positive tumors, HER2 positive tumors in 16.7% and TNBC in 29.8%. In our study, 30.7% Luminal subtype, 11.4% triple positive, 13.7% HER2 positive, 25.6% triple negative and 17.5% had unknown status. The overall mean DFS and OS in early breast cancer was 57months and 58 months respectively and locally advanced breast cancer was 51months and 52.5 months respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study we found that most of our patients present with advanced disease and TNBC and HER2 positive disease compared to western countries. In our study we found the survival of our patients was comparable with our Indian survival data, but less than western patients.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Early Physiotherapy Does Not Influence Seroma Formation among Patients Undergoing Breast Surgery- A Prospective Randomized Study 2019-07-22T09:54:47+00:00 Swapnali Mandlik Tejashri Deshpande Sirshendu Roy Supriya Palwe Shrikant Suryavanshi Rajnish Nagarkar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Seroma formation is a common side-effect rather than a complication among breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy and axillary dissection. Early physiotherapy among such patients is hypothesized to decrease the risk of seroma formation. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of early physiotherapy on seroma formation, shoulder disability/mobility and functional capacity, pain, post-operative drain removal, and lymphedema. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 103 patients were enrolled in the prospective randomized study. All patients were admitted at HCG Manavata Cancer Centre, Nashik, India. The study involved 41 patients who had undergone breast conservative surgery and 62 patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to ‘early physiotherapy’ or ‘delayed physiotherapy’ group. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of eight patients in the ‘early physiotherapy’ group and fourteen patients in the ‘delayed physiotherapy’ group developed seroma. No statistical significance was noted in context to seorma formation and physiotherapy as an intervention. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Early physiotherapy does not influcneseroma formation among patients who undergo breast surgery with axillary dissection. However, early physiotherapy helped in improving shoulder disability, mobility, and functional capacity. In context to the early post-operative period, physiotherapy has reduced pain among patients. There is a need for large multi-center trials to assess the potential of early physiotherapy in reducing or preventing seroma among breast cancer patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Morphologic and Morphometric Parameters of Human Mandible 2019-07-11T12:53:11+00:00 Riya Narwani Dr Vijaylaxmi <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mandible is the largest, strongest and movable part of the skull. Mandible identification is important in medicolegal and anthropological work. Hence; we assessed morphologic and morphometric parameters of human mandible. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> A total of 25 human mandibles were analyzed in the present study. Only those mandibles were included in the present study for which all the demographic data was available. Among these 25 human mandibles, 13 were of females while the remaining 12 were of males. Various morphologic features included were: Breadth of the ramus, Bicondylar width, and Height of the mandible. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>Mean breadth of the ramus among males was found to be 3.58 cm while among females was found to be 3.36 cm. Mean bicondylar width among males was found to be 11.8 cm while among females was found to be 10.5 cm. Mean height of the mandible among males was found to be 7.9 cm while among females was found to be 7.1 cm. Morphologic and morphometric parameters were found to be significantly higher among make mandible in comparison to females mandibles. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sexual dimorphism is exhibited by mandible bone, and therefore, can be utilized for assessment of both gender and population.</p> 2019-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Retinopathy of Prematurity: Its incidence, prevalence and risk factors in a teaching hospital in South India 2019-07-14T05:50:32+00:00 Sreenivasan V K Aparna Gulvadi <p><strong>Background: </strong>Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of preventable blindness in the world. In India also as more and more premature babies are being saved the incidence is on the rise. Aim of this study is to know the incidence, prevalence and risk factors of ROP in preterm babies with birth weight &lt; 1750 gms and /or gestational age &lt; 35 weeks in a teaching hospital. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted at Amala Institute of Medical Sciences from August 2016 to July 2018. All preterm babies &lt; 1750 gms and/ or gestational age &lt; 35 weeks and babies &gt; 35 weeks and &gt; 1750 gms with significant risk factors were screened for ROP. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 202 babies, 180 babies fulfilled the criteria and completed the study. 12 babies did not meet the follow up criteria and 10 babies died before screening in the hospital. Out of 180 babies, 12 babies were found to have ROP with a prevalence rate of 6.7%.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>ROP is an important cause of preventable blindness in these vulnerable babies. Timely diagnosis and intervention will help to prevent the same.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lactobacillus GG for Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea 2019-07-28T08:09:22+00:00 Sandhya Jain <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diarrhoea is a Greek word that’s literal meaning is “to flow through like a stream”. Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of 3 or more liquid or watery stools in a day with change in consistency and character of the stools. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> Using this data set, it was calculated that 130 subjects were needed to be enrolled (65 subjects in cases &amp; 65 subjects in controls) to detect a mean difference in duration of diarrhoea of 24 hours in the both group. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 265 children, 130 were found eligible and enrolled in the study, 127 (97.69%) completed the 7 days follow-up. Two child discontinued the intervention after discharge on day 3 in the intervention group, and three children did not come for follow-up in the control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/ day for five days given to children aged under five resulted in shortening of the duration of diarrhoea and faster improvement in stool consistency.</p> 2019-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Impact of Social Media Networking on Health Status- An Observational Study 2019-07-21T05:35:27+00:00 Amanjot Kaur Chauhan Priyanka Gupta Rajesh Ranjan Dheeraj Arya <p><strong>Background: </strong>Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of social media on health status. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study comprised of 1050 subjects of both genders. A questionnaire was designed to acquire information such as number of hours spent on social site, type of sites visualized and effect on general health. Responds were recorded and tabulated. <strong>Results: </strong>It showed that 70 (6.7%) subjects used to spend 1 hour/day, 260 (24.7%) subjects spent 2 hours/day and 720 (68.6%) used to spend &gt;2 hours/day on social media. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Most commonly seen site was facebook in 760 subjects, whatsapp by 820, yahoo by 870, twitter by 252 and instagram by 436 subjects. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Maximum cases of stress (344) were seen in subjects who spent &gt;2 hours/day on social media. Similarly, 240 had loss of concentration, 680 had obesity and 270 had hypertension who spent &gt;2 hours/day on social media. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors observed that as the duration on social media increased, the health related troubles increased. Obesity, hypertension, and stress were commonly seen health problems.</p> 2019-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Symptoms in Cases of Otitis Media - A Clinical Study 2019-07-27T10:52:39+00:00 Prasun Kumar Chattopadhyay <p><strong>Background: </strong>Otitis media (OM) is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. The present study was conducted to assess the cases of Otitis media. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 112 patients of OM of both genders. The case history and general physical examination was performed. General symptoms and types of OM were evaluated. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 112 patients, males were 52 and females were 60. Acute OM was seen in 30 males and 32 females and chronic OM was seen in 22 males and 28 females. Common symptoms were cold seen in 68, retro-auricular pain in 17, fever in 80, hearing impairment in 52, ear discharge in 72, tinnitus in 8, vertigo in 45 and facial asymmetry in 26. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors suggested that Otitis media is a common ear problem. They observed higher female prevalence than males.</p> 2019-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Differentiating Between Solitary Ring Enhancing Neurocysticerosisand Tuberculoma: Prospective Cross Sectional Study in Adult Population 2019-08-01T08:29:31+00:00 Jitendra Singh Saifullah Khalid Kavish Chaurasia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis of the brain remains a diagnostic challenge. MR Spectroscopy is a potential tool for differentiating between infectious and non-infectious lesions. This study was undertaken to assess differentiating characteristics on MRI and MR Spectroscopy of solitary tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis of JNMCH, Aligarh over a period of 3 years performed on 1.5T Siemens MR Scanner. 100 patients with brain imaging finding of a solitary ring enhancing lesion (SREL) were consecutively included in the study and further worked up and the patients with the final diagnosis of tuberculosis or neurocysticercosis were evaluated with MR Spectroscopy. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 100 patients, 86 were positive for nerocysticercosis or tuberculoma. The maximum numbers of cases were seen in the second and third decade of life. The overall male to female ratio in our study was~ 2:1. MR Spectroscopy in tuberculomas showed a lipid peak in 81% cases which was not seen in neurocysticercosis. MR Spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference in the ratios of CHO/CR and CHO/NAA in tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis. The ratio of CHO/CR, CHO/NAA, and NAA/CR was less than 1.5 in 83%, 88%, and 95% cases of neurocysticercosis, respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI + MR Spectroscopy can help to differentiate between them and MR Spectroscopy should be a part of routine brain MRI for cases with SREL.</p> 2019-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##