Prevalence and the Risk Factors of Haemorrhoids among the Patients Attending Tertiary Care Hospital of Bhuj, Kutch: A Cross-Sectional Study

Prevalence and the Risk Factors of Haemorrhoids

Keywords: Bleeding, Cross-sectional study, Diet, Haemerrhoids

Abstract

Background: Haemorrhoids are abnormal engorgement of arteriovenous plexus in anal cushions lining the anal canal. As per the theory of sliding anal canal lining, weakening of supporting tissues of anal cushions lead to blood vessel descent. Present study was carried out to study the surgical profile of patients with hemorrhoidectomy so that we can throw a light on the etiopathogenesis of the patients with hemorrhoidectomy. Subjects and Methods: Present cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Bhuj in the department of general surgery among 200 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of hemorrhoids. Information on socio demographic variables, types and degrees of haemorrhoids, age at diagnosis, risk factors, clinical manifestations, associated co-morbidities, methods used for diagnosis, management practices, and outcome of management was noted down by the investigators. Dietary history was taken they were classified as having vegetarian diet or mixed diet based on the answers given by them. Results: The incidence of hemorrhoids was more in upper class compared to the lower class where only 46% were found to be affected. But statistically the difference might not be significant. Incidence of hemorrhoids was less i.e. 24% among those who took only vegetarian diet compared to 76% among those who took mixed diet. Bleeding was present in the majority i.e. 95% of the patients followed by constipation in 90% of the cases which was followed by pain in the anal region in 86% of the cases and prolapse was seen in 84% of the cases. Conclusion: Haemerrhoids are one of the common diseases observed in patients below 40 years of age, especially if they are under stress. Proper diet, which is inclusive of adequate quantities of fibre as well as with less spice, is essential to prevent this disease.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Loder PB, Kamm MA, Nicholls RJ, Phillips RKS. Haemor- rhoids: Pathology, pathophysiology and aetiology. Br J Surg. 1994;81(7):946–954. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800810707.

Bailey HR. Innovations for age-old problem: hemorrhoids in the female patient. Female Patient. 2004;29:17–23.

Kumar S. Prevalence of Post-Operative Wound Infection. Asian J Med Res. 2018;7(2):5–08.

Heaton ND, Davenport M, Howard ER. Symptomatic hemorrhoids and anorectal varices in children with portal hypertension. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(7):833–835. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3468(92)90377-j.

Pietroletti R, Navarra L, Maggi G, Leardi S, Simi M. Diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhoids in the elderly: results from 291 patients. Tech Coloproctol. 2000;3(3):127–130. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s101510050031.

Everhart JE, Ruhl CE. Burden of Digestive Diseases in the United States Part I: Overall and Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases. Gastroenterol. 2009;136(2):376–386. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2008.12.015.

Liebach JR, Cerda JJ. Hemorrhoids: modern treatment methods. Hosp Med. 1991;53:68–68.

Lohsiriwat V. Hemorrhoids: From basic pathophysiol- ogy to clinical management. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(17):2009–2009. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i17.2009.

Madoff RD, Fleshman JW. American gastroenterological association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids1 1This literature review and the recommendations therein were prepared for the American Gastroenterological Association Clinical Practice Committee. The paper was approved by the Committee on January 8, 2004, and by the AGA Governing Board on February 13, 2004. Gastroenterol. 2004;126(5):1463–1473. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2004.03.008.

Dennison AR, Whiston RJ, Rooney S, Morris DL. The man- agement of hemorrhoids. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84:475–81.

Andrews CN, Storr M. The pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25:16–21.

Pfenninger JL, Surrell J. Nonsur gical treatment options for internal hemorrhoids. Am Fam Phys. 1995;52:821–855.

Parks AG. Surgical treatment of haemorrhoids. Br J Surg. 1956;43:337–345.

Ali SA, Shoeb MFR. Study of risk factors and clinical features of hemorrhoids. Int Surg J. 2017;4(6):1936–1936. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20172051.

Khan RM, Malik I, Ansari AH, Zulkifle M, E. A STUDY ON ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF HAEMORRHOIDS. J Bio Sci Opinion. 2015;3(1):36–38. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2321-6328.0318.

Naveen S, Lenka BN, Nayak AK. A clinical study of secondary haemorrhoids and its management. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2016;6:238–278.

Hu WS, Lin CL. Hemorrhoid is associated with increased risk of peripheral artery occlusive disease: A nationwide cohort study. J Epidemiol. 2017;27:574–77.

Sachin ID, Muruganathan OP. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy versus open hemorrhoidectomy: a comparative study of short term results. Int Surg J. 2017;4(2):472–472. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20164791.

Riss S, Weiser FA, Schwameis K, Riss T, Mittlböck M, Steiner G, et al. The prevalence of hemorrhoids in adults. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27(2):215–220. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-011-1316-3.

Khan RM, Malik I, Ansari AH, Zulkifle M, E. A STUDY ON ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF HAEMORRHOIDS. J Bio Sci Opinion. 2015;3(1):36–38. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2321-6328.0318.

Johanson JF, Sonnenberg A. The prevalence of hemorrhoids and chronic constipation. Gastroenterol. 1990;98(2):380–386. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(90)90828-o.

Loder PB, Kamm MA, Nicholls RJ, Phillips RK. Hemorrhoids: Pathology, pathophysiology and etiology. Br J Surg. 1994;81:946–54.

Demir H, Karaman K, Ercan M, Kocer HB, Celebi F. Com- parison of two procedures for symptomatic hemorrhoidal dis- ease: Ligation under Vision and Ferguson Hemorrhoidectomy - A retrospective cohort study. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(1):90–95. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.331.11266.

Chawla T, Turab P, Athar A. Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: The Aga Khan University Hospital Experience. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(3):163–163. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.45358.

Ganz RA. The Evaluation and Treatment of Hemorrhoids: A Guide for the Gastroenterologist. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2013;11(6):593–603. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2012.12.020.

Peery AF, Sandler RS, Galanko JA, Bresalier RS, Figueiredo JC, Ahnen DJ, et al. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(9):e0139100– e0139100. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139100.

Poskus T, e DB, Drasutiene G, Samalavicius NE, Barkus A, Barisauskiene A, et al. Haemorrhoids and anal fissures during pregnancy and after childbirth: a prospective cohort study. BJOG Int J Obs Gynaecol. 2014;121(13):1666–1671. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12838.

Maurya V, Jain V, Jolly S. Comparative study of stapler hemorrhoidectomy and open hemorrhoidectomy. J Med Sci Clin Res. 2017;5(4):19892–19904.

Chauhan H, Vaishnav UG. A comparative study of Longo’s procedure without stapler versus open hemorrhoidectomy in 2nd and 3rd degree hemorrhoids. IAIM. 2016;3(2):25–30.

Published
2020-05-26