Clinical Study on Psychiatric Morbidity in Suicide Attempters- A Observational Study
Psychiatric Morbidity in Suicide Attempters
Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious preventable public health problem all over the world. It is one of the three leading causes of death globally. Usually suicide has no single cause. It is the endpoint of an individual process, in which several cultural, social, situational, psychological, and biological factors interact. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the nature of psychiatric morbidity and it’s severity in patients who have attempted suicide, its relation to the socio-demographic and clinical variables and the particulars of the current attempt. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients with alleged history of suicide attempt were evaluated. Tools used were Socio Economic Status Schedule, Suicide Intent Scale and Comprehensive Psychopathology Rating Scale. ICD 10-AM Symptom Check List was used to evaluate and find out psychiatric diagnosis and final diagnosis was made on the basis of ICD-10- Classification of mental and behavioral disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR-10). Results: Most subjects are in the age group of 18-30, married, Hindus, with a primary education, semi-skilled workers with average monthly income of more than 3000 rupees from a nuclear family of semi urban area and belong to SESS category III. Adjustment disorder with brief depressive reaction is the most common diagnosis made and the diagnosis has statistically significant relation with past attempt, recent stressors, and motive. Type of attempt, method used, venue, lethality, and medical complication of the attempt have significant relation with, substance dependence and its total duration, gender, medication history and total duration of symptoms. Suicide intent score is statistically related with gender, total duration of symptoms, family history, motive, venue and lethality. Conclusion: Significant proportions of the individuals who attempt suicide have psychiatric morbidity. Attempted suicide can be considered to be a distinct sub- group of psychiatric symptoms which is usually neglected but is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with psychiatric disorders. Patients who attempt suicide require special attention and management by all the medical professionals.
Bucht G, Adolfsson R. The Comprehensive Psychopatho- logical Rating Scale in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multiinfarct dementia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983;68(4):263–70. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb07006.x.
Cummings JL. Theories behind existing scales for rating behavior in dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 1996;8(Suppl 3):293–300. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1041610297003517.
Kishi Y, Kathol RG. Assessment of Patients Who Attempt Sui- cide. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;4(4):132–36. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4088/pcc.v04n0403.
Lal N, Sethi BB. Demographic and socio- economic variables in attempted suicide by poisoning. . Indian J Psychiat . 1975;17:100–107.
Gupta SC, Singh H. Psychiatric illness in suicide attempters. . Indian J Psychiat. 1981;23:69–74.
Hamer D, Sanjeev D, Butterworth E, Barczak P. Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to Screen for Psychiatric Disorders in People Presenting with Deliberate Self-harm. Brit J Psychiat. 1991;158(6):782–784. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.158.6.782.
Moore GMD, Robertson AR. Suicide in the 18 Years After Deliberate Self-harm. Brit J Psychiat. 1996;169(4):489–494. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.169.4.489.
Qusar M, Morshed NM, Khadu M, Kalam M, Uddin M, Shaikh M. Psychiatric morbidity of suicide attempt patients requiring ICU intervention. J Med. 2010;11:7–11.
Vijayakumar L. Indian research on suicide. Indian J Psychiat. 2010;52:291–296.
Chandrashekaran R, Gnanaseelan J, Sahari A, Swaminathan RP, Perme B. Psychiatric and personality disorders in survivors following their first suicide attempt. Indian J Psychiat. 2003;45(2):45–48.
Srivastava MK, Sahoo RN, Ghotekar LH, Dutta S, Danabalan M, Dutta TK, et al. Risk Factors Associated with Attempted Suicide: A Case Control Study. Indian J Psychiat. 2004;p. 33– 38.
Kumar CTS, Mohan R, Ranjith G, Chandrasekaran R. Gender differences in medically serious suicide attempts: A study from South India. Psychiat Res. 2006;144:79–86. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2005.11.012.
Jain V, Singh H, Gupta SC, Kumar S. A study of hopelessness, suicidal intent and depression in cases of attempted suicide. . Indian J Psychiat. 1999;41(2):122–130.
Melvin GA, Posner K, Stanley BH, Oquendo MA, Tasman A, Kay J, et al. Management of the Suicidal Patient. Special Populations and Settings. Psychiatry . 2008;2:2478–2490.
Chandrasekaran R, Gnanaselane J. Predictors of Repeat Suicidal Attempts after First-ever Attempt: a Two-year Follow- up Study. Hong Kong J Psychiat. 2008;18:131–135.
Chowdhury A, Brahma A, Banerjee S, Biswas MK. Pattern of domestic violence amongst non-fatal deliberate self-harm attempters: A study from primary care of West Bengal. Indian J Psychiat. 2009;51(2):96–101. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.49448.
Yamada T, Kawanishi C, Hasegawa H, Sato R, Konishi A,
Kato D, et al. Psychiatric assessment of suicide attempters in Japan: a pilot study at a critical emergency unit in an urban area. BMC Psychiat. 2007;7:64–69. Available from: https:
Narang RL, Mishra BP, Mohan N. Attempted suicide in Ludhiana. . Indian J Psychiat. 2000;42:83–87.
Grover S, Avasthi A, Chakrabarti S, Malhotra S, Kumar S, Das P. Intentional self-harm seen in psychiatric referrals in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Psychiat. 2008;50(3):187–187. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.43633.
Unni K, Rotti SB, Chandrshekaran R. An exploratory study of the motivation in suicide attempters. Indian J Psychiat. 1995;37(4):169–175.
Hawton K, Houston K, Haw C, Townsend E, Harriss L. Comorbidity of Axis I and Axis II Disorders in Patients Who Attempted Suicide. Am J Psychiat. 2003;160(8):1494– 1500. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160. 8.1494.
Galgali RB, Rao S, Ashok MV, Appaya P, Srinivasan K. Psychiatric diagnosis of self poisoning cases: A general hospital study. Indian J Psychiat. 1998;40(3):254–259.
Balázs J, Benazzi F, Rihmer Z, Rihmer A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression: Implications for suicide prevention. J Affect Disord. 2006;91(2-3):133–138. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.049.
Kumar PNS. An Analysis of Suicide Attempters versus Completers in Kerala. Indian J Psychiat. 2004;46(2):144–149.
Copyright (c) 2020 Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.