Asian Journal of Medical Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Research (AJMR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;is an open-access, freely accessible, online and print quarterly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research on all medical specialties including ethical and social issues. AJMR is a gateway to enlighten the latest research/issues happening all around the world of medical and health sciences. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2277-7253 | Print ISSN: 2347-3398</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Asian Journal of Medical Research 2347-3398 Evaluation of Various Treatment Modalities in Treating Diarrhoea Patient’s at a Tertiary Care Centre: A Comparative Analysis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1226 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diarrhea is a common problem affecting up to 5% of the population at a given time. Patients vary in their definition of diarrhea, citing loose stool consistency, increased frequency, urgency of bowel movements, or incontinence as key symptoms. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare various treatment modalities in treating diarrhoea patients at a tertiary care centre.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare various treatment modalities in treating 240 diarrhoea patients. All the patients were grouped into three study groups with 80 patients in each group: group 1- included patients who were given Metronidazole therapy, group 2- patients who were given Ofloxacin therapy, and group 3 – patients who were given Norfloxacin therapy. Stool samples were obtained from patients of all the study groups for assessing the effectiveness of treatment therapy. Only clinical success was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and level of significance was assessed using Chi- square test.<strong>Results:</strong>In our study total sample size was 240 in which 175 were males and 65 were females. In group 1 patients with 3 to 4 times stool per day were 29 and more than 4 times per day were 53 whereas in group 2 patients with 3 to 4 times stool per day were 34 and more than 4 times per day were 49 and in group 3 patients with 3 to 4 times stool per day was 31 and more than 4 times per day were 44. The clinical success of group 1 was 96% , group 2 was 93.97% and group 3 was 93.33%.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Present study concluded that Metronidazole therapy had better clinical success than Ofloxacin therapy and Norfloxacin therapy.</p> Sukhdev Choudhary Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 SG01 SG02 Assessment of Outcome of Surgery in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1227 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mobilizes calcium by increasing calcium resorption from bone and by raising calcium reabsorption in the proximal kidney tubule. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) results from inappropriate overproduction of parathyroid hormone from one or many parathyroid glands and presents with hypercalcemia. In the surgical management of PHP intraoperative PTH (IO-PTH) assays have been shown to improve the success of parathyroid gland surgery. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has replaced the traditional four-gland bilateral exploration as the procedure preferred by many institutions. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the outcome of surgery in patients with PHP.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study included assessment of outcome of surgery in patients with PHP.&nbsp; Once the suspicious parathyroid was identified, careful dissection with blunt instruments was done to free gland from surrounding fascia. Bipolar was used to ligate the vascular supply and the specimen was removed.&nbsp; Patients with above mentioned inclusion criteria underwent preoperative localization with USG neck and technetium Tc-99m (99mTc) Sestamibi scan (CT/ MRI Neck when required). Based on results of MIBI and USG neck, the findings were defined as concordant and discordant. Patients with concordant findings of USG neck and Sestamibi scan underwent MIP.&nbsp; All the results were summarized in Microsoft excel sheet and were analyzed by SPSS software.<strong>Results:</strong>CT/MRI was done in only 4 patients where 50% of the patients showed involvement of right superior and inferior glands. Minimal invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) was done in 95.2% patients (20/21) while bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was done in only 1 case of multiple adenoma. The USG neck (n=20) was able to accurately localize abnormal parathyroid glands in 17 patients (85%).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>In patients undergoing surgical treatment for PHP, Minimal Invasive Parathyroidectomy has excellent prognosis.</p> Harmeet Pal Singh Dhooria Rishab Garg Parminder Singh Ravinder Pal Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 SG03 SG05 Assessment of Pain Outcome and Amount of Analgesic Required Post Operatively After Instillation of Bupivacaine amongst Pre Incisional Vs. Postincisional Vs. Control Groups http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1228 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Effective postoperative pain control is an essential component for care of surgical patients. Although opioid analgesics are effective in treating postoperative pain, concerns regarding their ability to increase nausea, vomiting and to produce respiratory depression have limited their use during laparoscopic procedures.&nbsp; The study aimed to provide impetus for further research and help in performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a day care procedure.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on a group of 180 patients diagnosed to have symptomatic cholelithiasis and who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.&nbsp; In one group, pre-incisional local infiltration of 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine at the port sites&nbsp; with intraperitonial installation of 10ml 0.25% bupivacaine was done throughout all the layers of the abdominal wall (till peritoneum).&nbsp; In group 2, local infiltration of 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine at the port sites with intraperitonial installation of 10ml 0.25% bupivacaine was done after the completion of surgical procedure, and just before the closure of skin.&nbsp;&nbsp; The analysis was done using one way ANOVA &amp; Post HOC test (Scheffe’s HSD) &amp; Chi square tests. Parameters studied are side effects like nausea/ vomiting and the additional need of rescue analgesia along with elapsed time for 1st rescue analgesia.<strong>Results:</strong>Our patients in both the study groups received the first analgesic drug much later (~6 hours postoperatively) as compared to the control group (2.3 hours post operatively). The total analgesic requirement post operatively was also lower in the study group with respect to the control group. (150 mg vs 300 mg of injDiclofenac sodium) There was no significant difference in the incidence of shoulder tip pain amongst the three groups. 11 out of 180 patients in the study group experienced post-operative nausea while 6 out of 60 patients in the control group experienced nausea.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>To conclude, technique of instillation of bupivacaine at the port sites in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is simple, safe and without adverse effects. It is likely to be cost effective, because it decreases post-operative usage of NSAIDS or opioids, and helps in better resource utilization for treatment of postoperative pain and also useful for patient to provide a more comprehensive and comfortable post-operative period.</p> Nippun Chhakarvarty Umesh Chhabra Vikram Singh Gopal Singhal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 SG06 SG09 To Assess the Efficacy of Postoperative Antibiotics after Appendectomy in Patients with Non-Perforated Appendicitis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1229 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain, requiring surgical intervention and appendectomy is the most frequently performed emergency surgery. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of postoperative antibiotics after appendectomy in patients with non-perforated appendicitis.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on 52 patients of appendectomy of both genders. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I patients did not receive post-operative antibiotic. Group II patients received postoperative antibiotic.<strong>Results:</strong>Age group 20-40 years had 12 patients in group I and 10 in group II, 40- 60 years had 9 in group I and 12 in group II and &gt;60 years had 5 in group I and 4 in group II. The difference was non- significant (P&gt; 0.05). SSI positive was seen in 11 in group I and 2 in group II, SSI negative was seen in 15 in group I and 24 in group II. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that surgical site infection was relatively less in patients who received post operative antibiotics than those who did not receive antibiotics.</p> Govind Trivedi Siddharth Mishra Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 SG10 SG12 A Comparative Study of Management of Supracondylar Fracture of Humerus in Children by Two Techniques: An Institutional Based Prospective Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1218 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most frequent fractures affecting the paediatric elbow and their correct management is important because they can cause catastrophic complications. Hence; the present study was undertaken for comparing the efficacy of two different techniques of management of Supracondylar Fracture of Humerus in Children.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>A total of 30 children with displaced supracondylar fractures who presented to the emergency department were recruited in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who were treated with medial lateral pin fixation, and group 2 consisted of patients who were treated with 2 lateral parallel pin fixations. Treatment was carried out in all the patients under septic conditions under the hands of skilled and experienced orthopaedic surgeons. Outcome was assessed in all the patients and was compared. All the results were summarized in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. <strong>Results:</strong>Mean elbow extension loss among subjects of group 1 was 7.08 degree while among the subjects of group 2 was 7.09 degree. Mean elbow flexion loss among subjects of group 1 was 9.57 degree while among the subjects of group 2 was 10.28 degree. Non-significant results were obtained while comparing the mean elbow extension and elbow flexion loss among subjects of both the study groups.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both the techniques can be used with equal efficacy for treating supracondylar fractures of humerus in children.</p> Rahul Bhardwaj Kaushlendra Kumar Vikas Jujhar Singh Ramesh Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 OR01 OR03 Magnetic Versus Manual Catheter Navigation for Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1209 <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, and procedural complications of remote magnetic navigation (RMN) versus manual catheter navigation (MCN) for ablation of ventricular tachycardia.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>We performed electronic searches on PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science and CINAHL databases from inception through April 6, 2017, to identify clinical trials comparing RMN with MCN.&nbsp; The primary efficacy outcomes were acute failed ablation and recurrent VT rates.&nbsp; Secondary outcomes in our study were procedural time, fluoroscopic time and procedural complications.<strong>Results:</strong>Six clinical trials, including a total of 582 patients, were identified, of which 324 underwent RMN guided VT ablation, and 258 underwent MCN guided VT ablation.&nbsp; Acute procedural success (or reduced failed VT ablation rates) was significantly improved with RMN group versus MCN group (10% versus 19% respectively, RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38 – 0.83) with no statistically significant difference in the recurrent VT rates (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.64-1.19).&nbsp; The total procedure time was not significantly different between the two groups.&nbsp; However, the total fluoroscopy time (Standard mean difference -1.00, 95% CI -1.32 - -0.67; p&lt;0.001) was significantly lower and a trend towards reduced procedural complications (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16 – 0.99; p=0.05) was observed in the RMN group versus MCN group, respectively.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this meta-analysis, there was a significant benefit regarding acute VT ablation success rate and a significant reduction in radiation exposure, with a trend towards reduction in procedure-related complication in patients undergoing RMN guided VT ablation versus MCN VT ablation approach.</p> Jalaj Garg Rajiv Gupta Rahul Chaudhary Rahul Gupta Roshni N Patel Mohit Turagam N. S. Neki Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 ME01 ME06 Evaluation of the Cardiovascular Risk by Early ECG Changes in Smokers – A Cross Sectional Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1210 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Smoking is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke is known to cause electrophysiological changes on the ECG which if identified early can contribute to prevention of Coronary artery disease. Objective: To evaluate the association of ECG changes in smokers compared with non -smokers.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>A cross sectional study was undertaken in a Government Medical&nbsp; College in Chennai comprising of 150 healthy male smokers (with no known pre-existing disease) divided into three groups based on pack years of smoking and a fourth group of 50 healthy male non-smokers that served as the control group. A resting 12 lead ECG was taken for all the study participants and the ECG parameters were analysed. Simple descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and student’s independent t-test were employed for statistical analysis of the data.<strong>Results:</strong>ECG abnormalities were found to be more prevalent in smokers (23.33%) than in non smokers (10%) The ECG changes observed were an increased heart rate, increased QTc interval, increased P wave amplitude and decreased S-T segment duration even in apparently young healthy smokers. A statistically significant association was also seen between the prevalence of ECG changes and pack years of 5 or more.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Electrophysiological changes develop even in healthy smokers, increasing with higher pack years of smoking. The ECG is a simple, cost effective tool that can be used to motivate smoking cessation and early intervention to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.</p> K. Harikrishnan C. Sridhar K. Raja Namitha Narayanan Elavazhagan B Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 ME07 ME10 A Study on the Demographic and Clinical Profile of Patients with Haemotoxic Snake Bite http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1211 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In India, snake bite is an important medical emergency and reason for hospital admission. There is a predominance of haemotoxic bites in South India. Factors contributing to fatal snake bite include problems with dosage of antivenom, delay in treatment and failure to observe and treat complications. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the demographic and clinical profile, complications and outcome in patients with haemotoxic snake bite.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>This was a hospital based observational study conducted in a tertiary government hospital for a period of one year. The clinical and demographic profile of patients with haemotoxic snake bite and factors contributing to poor outcome were studied. <strong>Statistical analysis:</strong> Mean, Standard deviation, Percentiles and frequency, Percentages for continuous and categorical data, Chi square test for association between proportions and p &lt; 0.05 for statistical significance.<strong>Results:</strong>A total of 100 patients of haemotoxic snake bite were studied. The majority were male patients (63%) in the age group of 40-60 years. Most of the patients were farmers and labourers from a rural background. 92% of the patients were admitted within 6 hours of the bite. Local manifestations that were commonly seen were swelling of the bitten limb and tender lymphadenopathy. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 31%. The most common complication was acute kidney injury seen in 10%. Mortality rate was 3%.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Factors contributing to poor outcome were duration between bite and admission and presence of acute kidney injury.</p> Kalpana Ramanathan Haridoss Sripriya Vasudevan Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 ME11 ME17 Determinants of CD4 Cell Count among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Attendant HIV Positive Adults Using Longitudinal Data Analysis in University of Gondar Referral Hospital http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1212 <p><strong>Background: </strong>CD4 count is the best predictor for disease status and immediate risk of death and thus should be used to identify those who have advanced HIV disease. The aim of this study to investigating the basic factors of CD4cell count and assessing the progression of CD4cell count among HIV positive adults those they were attending university of Gondar Referral ART clinic, since December 2012 up to December 2017.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>Since, the outcome variable was measured repeatedly through time and measurements within the patient were correlated. Such type of data requires a special types of modeling strategy, there for longitudinal data analysis plays a major role on such type of data analysis. Linear mixed model with unstructured correlation matrix were used to model the data in this study by including fixed and random factors on the model.<strong>Results:</strong>From the total of 216 Study subjects were followed retrospectively 61.08% and 38.92 were females and males respectively. The maximum number of observation per subject was 10 and the minimum and maximum CD4cell counts were 65 and 1440 respectively.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the findings of the study religion (orthodox, and Muslim), weight, baseline CD4cell count, time, TB screen positive, hemoglobin level, regimen type (d4t-3TC-NVP and AZT-3TC-NVP)and the interaction effect of time with baseline CD4count was significant predictors of CD4count. We would like to recommend for the patients must be, punctual, initiated to ART with high base line CD4count and hemoglobin level.</p> Koyachew Yenaneh Tadege Tigist Jegnaw Kasim Mohammed Yesuf Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 ME18 ME28 Survival Time of Adult Ischemic Stroke Patients and Associated Risk Factors: A Retrospective Cohort Study at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1213 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stroke is a major public health and clinical problem that represents the third leading cause of disease worldwide among adult non-communicable diseases. Stroke in the developing world is becoming a leading cause of death from infectious diseases that affects mainly adults and adult disability. Ischemic stroke is the most common form of strokes&nbsp; approximately about 80%–85% of all strokes in nature.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Felege-Hiwot Referral Hospital among 232 ischemic stroke patients who started treatment between September 2014 and August 2016. Information on relevant variables was collected from adult ischemic stroke patients paper based medical cards and registries. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test used to compare the survival time of different category of predictors, and Cox’s regression model employed to identify the effect of covariates on the survival time of ischemic stroke patients.<strong>Results:</strong>A total of 232 adult ischemic stroke, patients were included in the study. Out of the total 232 individuals, 69(29.74%) died and the remaining 163(70.26%) were censored at the end of follow-up period. Based on Cox proportional hazards regression model, age (AHR =1.015, CI: 1.001 – 1.0304), diabetes(AHR=0.353, CI: 0.1938– 0.643), hypertension (AHR =0.607, 95% CI:1.003–1.0053), structural heart disease (AHR =2.231, 95% CI: 1.158 – 4.593), and history of previous ischemic stroke(AHR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.088 – 3.113) were significantly associated with the mortality of adult ischemic stroke patients.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the Cox Proportional Hazards regression model the following prognostic factors, age, diabetes, hypertension, structural heart disease, fibrillation, and history of previous ischemic stroke were the risk factors for survival time of ischemic stroke patients.</p> Abay Kassie Salie Ayalew Mandefro Abere Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 ME29 ME35 Effects of Bio-Psycho-Socio-Spiritual Factors on Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Inflammation in Elderly Indonesian Muslim http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1258 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The evaluation of bio-psycho-socio-spiritual factors on cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers has not been widely studied in Indonesia. Accumulated evidence that biological, psychosocial and spiritual factors were related to the incidence, severity and cure of cardiovascular disease through psycho-neuro-immunological pathways. Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the effect of bio-psycho-socio-spiritual factors on cardiovascular risk and inflammatory biomarkers.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>A total of 121 subjects voluntarily participated in the study, were recruited using the cluster random sampling method from Posyandu (Indonesian health service). Each subject was examined for ELISA blood examination of the high sensitive C-reactive protein, transforming growth factor-b, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and interferon-g. The subjects filled out the depression anxiety stress scale-42 questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression; WHOQOL BREF for quality of life and the solemnity questionnaires for the solemnity in Islamic prayer measurement. The assessment for cardiovascular risk using the Jakarta score method.<strong>Results:</strong>The biophysical factors which influence inflammatory biomarker include blood pressure on ICAM-1 and hs-CRP, body mass index on TGF-b, and fasting blood glucose on hs-CRP. The influence of psychosocial factors include educational degree on ICAM-1 and hs-CRP, marital status on cardiovascular risk and depression on blood pressure. The solemnity in Islamic prayer is a spiritual coping that have effect on improving the quality of life.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The biophysical factors having influence on inflammatory biomarker are blood pressure, body mass index and fasting blood glucose. The contribution from psycho-socio-spiritual factors include educational degree, marital status and depression.</p> Yusuf Alam Romadhona Bambang Purwantob Rochmad Romdonic Surotod Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 8 4 ME36 ME43 Study of Endometrial Pathology in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Patients Visited in Hospital: An Retrospective Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1214 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Abnormal uterine bleedingis the commonest presenting symptom in gynaecology out-patient department. This retrospective study was done to assess the incidence of endometrial pathology in abnormal uterine bleeding patients visited in hospital.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>This was a prospective study done on patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding from done in the Department of Obstetrics &amp; Gynecology, Government Medical College, Barmer, Rajasthan, India. The study sample included a total number of 440 women. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, processed, embedded in paraffin and 3- 4 micron thick sections were cut and stained with H&amp;E. Histological evaluation was done. <strong>Results:</strong>In the present study total no. of cases were 440 in which maximum cases had isolated endometrial pathology (69.09%). Maximum no. of patients had menorrhagia (38.63%). 29.77% patients had metrorrhagia.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Endometrial cause of AUB is age related pathology. In our study maximum cases had isolated endometrial pathology and maximum no. of patients had menorrhagia.</p> Kheta Ram Soni Sudesh Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 OG01 OG02 Association between Vitamin D and Malondialdehyde in Premenopausal Women & Postmenopausal Women http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1207 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In the menopausal women, the osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in bone fracture risk. These risks are due to calcium &amp; vitamin D deficiency, which occur due to less amount of estrogen production during menopausal age. Aim: To find out the association between vitamin D and Malondialdehyde in Menopausal women. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Serum vitamin D and Malondialdehyde levels were measured in 155 postmenopausal women (46-60 years) by using standard methods. They have been compared with 155 premenopausal women (30-45 years) by using student t-test. <strong>Results: </strong>Serum vitamin D was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women (p&lt;0.0001) as compared to premenopausal women; whereas the serum malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly increased in postmenopausal women (p&lt;0.0001) as compared with premenopausal women. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study findings indicate decreased levels of serum vitamin D and increased the level of serum malondialdehyde in postmenopausal women. These changes can be used as a good marker for identifying bone related disorders in postmenopausal women. Intimation with supplementation at an early stage may further prevent bone disorder in the later stage of menopause.</p> Kedar Prasad Yadav Jyoti Batra Uday Narayan Singh Rubi Yadav Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 BC01 BC03 Analysis of Hysterectomy Specimens- A histopathological Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1230 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hysterectomy means removal of uterus. The present study was conducted to assess histopathology of hysterectomy specimens.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on 104 hystrectomy specimens. The hysterectomy specimens received were immediately transferred into 10% fresh formalin. The histopathological findings of uterus and cervix were then recorded.<strong>Results:</strong>Clinical indications were ovarian cyst in 2, dermoid cyst in 11, fibroid uterus in 25, menorrhagia in 34, chronic cervicitis in 6, carcinoma cervix in 10, carcinoma endometrium in 7, and uterine polyp in 9. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Histopathology was normal in 24, adenocarcinoma in 16, leiomyoma in 12, adenomyosis in 16, chronic cervicitis in 20, SCC in 17, endocervical polyp in 7. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hystrectomy is a common procedure among females. Histopathology of hysterectomy found to be adenocarcinoma, endocervical polyp leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic cervicitis, SCC, and normal histology.</p> Neetu Punia Shivani Dua Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 MC01 MC03 Outcome of Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus: A Single Institutional Experience http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1231 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Background and Objectives: Primary small cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE) is a very aggressive disease and accounts for 0.8–3.1% of all esophageal cancers. The study analysed clinical characteristics and survival outcome of 24 treated cases. <strong>Subjects &amp; Methods: </strong>Out of total 3,440 cases of esophageal cancers diagnosed from 2013 to 2016 at Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute, clinical data were obtained from 24 histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed cases of primary SCCE. Patients received surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, either alone or in combinations. <strong>Results:</strong> The median age of patients was 54 years with male preponderance. Out of 24 cases, 15 cases have pure small cell carcinoma histology and 9 cases had mixed pathology (poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation). The median overall survival time was 14 months. The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36- month’s survival rates of these patients were 91.6%, 54.1%, 33.3% and 25.0% respectively. The 3-year survival rate for patients with localised disease was 62.6% vs. 6.3% for those with metastatic disease (p=0.007). Nine patients had relapses within first 6 months from the completion of any therapy. Patients with pure small cell carcinoma histology (vs. mixed histology, p=0.008), with distant organ involvement (vs. no organ involvement, p=0.022) and those who are non-responders to treatment (vs. responders, p&lt;0.0001) were correlated with shorter overall survival in univariate analysis. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Primary SCCE presents with early metastasis and have a poor prognosis, with the existing modalities of treatment. Combined therapy based on platinum-based combination chemotherapy may improve the short term survival in these patients.</p> Partha Sarathi Roy Bhargab Jyoti Saikia Satya S Sarangi Mouchumee Bhattacharyya Abhijit Talukdar Manoj Kalita Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 MC04 MC09 Evaluation of Cases of Myelopathies- A Clinical Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1256 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Myelopathy describes pathologic conditions that cause spinal cord, meningeal or perimeningeal space damage or dysfunction. The present study was conducted to assess cases of myelopathy. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 82 cases of myelopathy of both genders. Lumbar puncture was performed in all patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was examined for protein, cells, and sugar. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 82 patients, males were 52 and females were 30.&nbsp; There were 41 males and 14 females with idiopathic transverse myelitis and 11 males and 16 females with other acute myelopathies. Mean CSF protein in group I was 56.2 and in group II was 82.4, CSF cells were 28.5 in group I and 214.6 in group II, CSF sugar was 71.4 in group I and 62.7 in group II, RBS was 120.1 in group I and 116.3 in group II. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Centromedullary involvement was seen in 95% in group I and 82% in group II, LETM was present in 82% in group I and77% in group II, contrast enhancement was seen in 31% in group I and 45% in group II, cord swelling was seen in 64% in group I and 52% in group II. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that cases were of idiopathic transverse myelitis and acute myelopathies. MRI is useful in diagnosis of lesions.</p> Praveen K Shiby T G Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 8 4 MC10 MC12 Knowledge, Perception and Attitude of Indian Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients toward Renal Transplantation http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1257 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem and so is the dilemma of choosing the right renal replacement therapy in end-stage renal disease. Renal transplantation undoubtedly improves the quality of life and long-term survival as compared to dialysis, but patients’ choice is influenced by their awareness regarding these treatment modalities. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, perceptions and attitude of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients towards transplantation.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>Patients on MHD for more than 3 months duration were included in this questionnaire based cross-sectional study, after a written informed consent.<strong>Results:</strong>A total of 144 patients with a mean age of 48 ±12 years were included in the study, with 92(63.9%) males and 52(36.2%) females. Most of these had diabetic kidney disease (n=58,40.3%). The source of knowledge regarding transplantation were the treating doctor (76.4%), paramedical staff (9.7%), relatives/friends (11.1%) and social media/other sources (2.8%). Majority of them (n=100,69.4%) were willing to undergo transplantation, but had multiple reasons for continuing hemodialysis, including old age (31.8%), financial constrains (40.9%), fear of post-transplant complications (54.5%), concern for health of the donor after donation (22.7%) and various co-morbidities precluding transplantation (9.1%). Only 41.7% patient was aware of option of diseased donor transplantation, but just 11.1% were enrolled for the same.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Negative attitude towards transplantation is a potentially modifiable factor and increasing awareness among CKD patients can improve their quality of life, after live or deceased donor transplantation.</p> Simran Kaur Deepak Sharma Harmandeep Singh Chahal Suman Sethi Preet Mohinder Singh Sohal Vikas Makkar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 8 4 MC13 MC17 Assessment of Cardiac Arrest among Children Due to Anesthetic Procedures: An Institutional Based Prospective Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1219 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a major public health problem. The present study was conducted to assess cardiac arrest in children due to anesthetic procedures.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>This study was conducted on 130 children age &lt;18 years of both genders. Parameters such as surgical procedure, personnel involved in anesthetic care, anesthetic agents, and techniques and monitors were recorded. The incidence of the cardiac arrest was also recorded.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 130 patients, males were 70 and females were 60. ASA grade I was seen in 10, II in 18, III in 40, IV in 50 and V in 12 patients. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). The type of surgery was airway in 20, cardiac in 13, urology in 52, craniotomy in 15 and thoracic in 30. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Out of 130 patients, boys had 12 and girls had 14 cases of cardiac arrest. The mechanism of cardiac arrest was medication related in 38, cardiovascular in 20, respiratory in 21, equipment related in 12, multiple event in 14, hypothermia in 15 and unclear in 10. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Common reason for cardiac arrest in children was medication related, cardiovascular, respiratory, equipment related, multiple event, hypothermia and unclear.</p> Triyank Shukla Poonam Kanojia Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 PE01 PE03 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Etiopathological Profile Represents the Various Causes of Thrombocytopenia and Their Comparison among Different Age Groups & Sex http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1220 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Platelet disorders are commonly encountered clinical problems that may lead to severe bleeding episodes requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Present study is focussed on determining etiopathological profile of thrombocytopenia which is a quantitative platelet disorder.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The data for this study was collected by 100 patient evaluation was done by detailed history taking, Clinical examination and relevant&nbsp;&nbsp; investigations using a proforma specially designed for this study in SantokbaDurlabhji Hospital, Jaipur. EDTA blood samples were taken for CBC, Hb, APC, estimation and citrated blood in 1:9 dilution were taken for PT &amp; PTTK estimation.<strong>Results:</strong>In our study incidence of petechiae, ecchymosis &amp;malena was does not depend on age group, but epistaxis &amp;Haemetemesis depends on age group. Here using Pearson Chi-Square test we conclude p value to be significant (p&lt;0.05) thus supporting the basis of this study that incidence of various etiologies of thrombocytopenia varies according to age group. Male &amp; female ratio was 2.12:1was seen in this study.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study is to provide a firm knowledge of the major causes of thrombocytopenia&nbsp; and to form a broad differential diagnosis. Present study infers that various etiologies can be attributed&nbsp; to specific age groups. Moreover different manifestations of thrombocytopenia also vary according to age group.</p> Akansha Sharma Ashwini Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 PE04 PE08 An Unusual Case of Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis Masquerading as Pulmonary Tuberculosis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1222 <p>Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic lung disease characterized by bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma. PAM is known to occur over wide age range. Exact etiopathogenesis of PAM is not known and long term survival is uncertain. Patient can be asymptomatic or present with progressive pulmonary symptoms. Radiological features of PAM are pathognomic for radiologist who is aware of this rare pulmonary disease. However the changes of PAM on imaging can be misdiagnosed as those due to pulmonary tuberculosis which is a relatively common diagnosis in the Indian setting. Definitive diagnosis is based on typical microscopic features seen on transbronchial or open lung biopsy.We report a case of 41 years old female who was treated as a case of pulmonary tuberculosis for two years without relief of symptoms at a peripheral medical centre. Final diagnosis of PAM was made on the basis of characteristic radiological findings and microscopic features at our Institute.</p> Nadia Ilyas Sandhya Poflee Vedita Bobde Satish Helwatkar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 PT01 PT03 Study of Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Suicide Risk and Resilience in Undergraduate Medical Students http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1223 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess depression, anxiety, stress, suicide risk and resilience in undergraduate MBBS 1st Professional medical student.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>48 first professional MBBS students were participated in study before educational intervention. DASS, Suicidal behaviour questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Connor Davidson’s resilience scale were used.<strong>Results:</strong>Results showing that 43.75% having moderate depression, 25% have moderate anxiety and stress. 29.16% students have SBQ-R≥7 (considered at risk of suicide). Depression has positive correlation with stress, anxiety and suicide. No significant correlation was found between resilience and depression, anxiety, stress and suicide risk.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>We need more such studies to assess mental wellbeing of medical students and appropriate measures to tackle the threat of suicide of future healer.</p> Gaurav Verma Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 PY01 PY03 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study to Compare, Intraoperative Ventilatory Parameters, Insertion Success Rate & Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure of Three Airway Devices the Esophageal-Tracheal Combitube, the EasyTube and the Laryngeal Tube-S http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1198 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Securing and managing the airway is quintessential and perhaps the most critical aspect in practice of anaesthesiology. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Combitube, EasyTube and the Laryngeal tube suction, when placed in their conventional positions, for general anaesthesia during elective non-laparoscopic surgeries using controlled ventilation.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>A prospective randomized controlled study done on 90 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were enrolled into the study and were randomly allocated to the following three groups using computer generated random table. Group ETC (n=30): Patients whose airway was managed using Esophageal tracheal combitube, Group EzT (n=30): Patients whose airway was managed using Easy Tube and Group LTS (n=30): Patients whose airway was managed using Laryngeal tube suction. The time taken to insert the device was recorded in each instance in all the groups. For comparison of qualitative data, Chi square test was used. Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. P value of &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant.<strong>Results:</strong>When compared, use of Combitube, EasyTube and Laryngeal Tube Suction was associated with statistically similar intraoperative airway pressures, dynamic compliance, airway resistance, SpO2, and EtCO2 (p&gt;0.05). Combitube and EasyTube resulted in significantly higher incidence of mucosal trauma detected by presence of blood on the device after its removal and an insignificant increase in incidence of postoperative sore throat (p&gt;0.05). Combitube placement resulted in significantly higher incidence of postoperative dysphagia as compared to easy tube and laryngeal tube suction(p&lt;0.05). But the nature of all these complaints was mild and no active intervention was required in any case.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that based on our observations, if and when Combitube, EasyTube or Laryngeal Tube Suction is used for emergency airway management, it can be continued for conduct of general anaesthesia in surgeries of moderate duration.</p> Aditya Kumar Chauhan Hem Chandra Bhatt Shailesh Kumar Lohani Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AN01 AN06 A Study of Intra-Operative and Post-Operative Complications among Smokers under General Anesthesia: An Hospital Based Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1200 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The link between smoking and complications is well documented across surgical specialities. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing Intra-Operative and Post-Operative Complications among Smokers under General Anesthesia.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was undertaken in the department of Anaesthesia, Government Medical College, Barmer, Rajasthan, India with aim of assessing Intra-Operative and Post-Operative Complications among Smokers under General Anesthesia. A total of 50 patients were enrolled in the present study. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethical committee and written consent was obtained from all the patients after explaining in detail the entire research protocol. Inclusion criteria for the present study included: 1) Current smokers, 2) Patients with current smoking habit from a minimum of 5 years, 3) Patients scheduled to undergo any surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Complete demographic details of all the patients were obtained. Incidence of both intra-operative and postoperative complications in all the patients was recorded. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analyzed by SPSS software.<strong>Results:</strong>Intra-operative complications included need for ventilator, heart attack and requirement of intra-operative analgesia. Postoperative complications included impaired wound healing and nausea and vomiting.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Smokers are subjects to significant chances of occurrence of intra-operative and postoperative complications.</p> Bharat Choudhary Mahendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AN07 AN09 Comparison of Postoperative Analgesia amongst Subjects Receiving Ropivacaine and Clonidine versus Ropivacaine Alone: A Hospital Based Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1201 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pain is the most common complain causing distress to the patients in immediate postoperative period. Various studies have shown that transverse abdominal plane (TAP) 13 block is effective modality for postoperative pain relief using ropivacaine or bupivacaine. But duration of these blocks with local anesthetics only is limited to few hours. The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the postoperative analgesia amongst subjects receiving ropivacaine and clonidine versus ropivacaine alone.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present prospective and double blinded study involving 70 patients was performed for a period of 2 years at the Department of Anesthesiology. Monitors were attached and baseline (preoperative) heart rate by ECG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured by noninvasive blood pressure monitoring. The duration of postoperative analgesia and complications like nausea, vomiting or any other were noted during the procedure. Student t test was used for statistical analysis and probability value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.<strong>Results:</strong>Abdominal Hysterectomy was performed in 4 patients in Group c and 6 patients in Group R. Hernioplasty was performed in 5 patients in Group c and 7 patients in Group R. The mean time for first dose in Group c was 646.83 mins and in group R was 393.43 mins. The mean time for second dose in Group c was 1284.89 mins and in group R was 393.43 mins.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>TAP block under USG guidance should be used to provide better analgesia in postoperative Period. Adjuvants like clonidine should be used along with local anesthetics for prolongation of analgesic effect of TAP block in post-operative period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohit Rathee Mrinal Kamal Mamta Chadha A K Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AN10 AN13 Comparison of Blood Pressure Measurements with Direct Method and Cardell Method in Dogs http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1202 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Invasive arterial pressure is the accepted gold standard in veterinary medicine for blood pressure measurement. The present study was conducted to compare blood pressure measurements in dogs.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted in the department of Veterinary Sciences on 20 dogs. In all dogs, direct arterial pressure and Cardell method of measurement of blood pressure was used. <strong>Results:</strong>The mean age of dogs was 7.6 years and mean weight was 31.4 kgs. Common diagnosis in dogs was PDA in 2, intestinal perforation in 5, hemoabdomen in 3, adrenal neoplasia in 4, chylothorax in 3 and pericardial effusion in 3 cases. The difference was non- significant (P&gt; 0.05). There was significant difference in blod pressure both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in different groups measure by direct method and Cardell method.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found significant difference in blood pressure of dogs with different illness recorded by different methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dushyant Nijhawan Rakesh K Chawla Manju Saxena Shikha Dixit Vidushi Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AN14 AN16 To Assess the Clinical Value of the RPAD Index in Dogs with Varying Degrees of Pulmonary Hypertension http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1203 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The gold standard for pulmonary artery pressure measurement is right heart catheterization. The present study was conducted to assess the clinical value of the RPAD index in dogs with varying degrees of pulmonary hypertension.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on 40 dogs. Dogs were divided in four groups according to the TRPG value (&lt;36 mmHg, 36–50 mmHg, 51–75 mmHg, or &gt;75 mmHg). In all dogs, presence of signs commonly associated with PH was recorded.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 40 dogs, male dogs were 25 and female dogs were 15. Common clinical features were coughing in 24, tachypnea in 11, weakness in 18, dyspnea in 27, syncope in 5 and hemoptysis in 34. The mean heart rate in group I was 130.2, in group II was 121.4, in group III was 141.3 and in group IV was 147.5. Clinical score in group I was 2.5, in group II was 3.7, in group III was 5.11 and in group IV was 5.8. Mean radiology score was 1.3 in group I, 2.4 in group II, 2.9 in group III and 3.8 in group IV. Fractional shortening was 46.5% in group I, 50.3% in group II, 55.4% in group III and 53.2% in group IV. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found significant difference in mean heart rate, clinical score, radiology score and fractional shortening in dogs with different pulmonary pressure.</p> Dushyant Nijhawan Rakesh K Chawla Manju Saxena Shikha Dixit Vidushi Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AN17 AN19 A Clinical Study to Evaluate a Correlation between Thyroid Problems with Glaucoma http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1215 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypothyroidism, a decrease in thyroid hormone production by the thyroid gland. The present study was conducted to assess correlation of hypothyroidism with glaucoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on 50 patients with thyroid disorders.Visual acuity was determined with Snellen’s chart. Patients diagnosed with POAG were followed up after 6 months for repeat IOP and perimetric analysis. <strong>Results:</strong>Out of 50 thyroid patients, males were 20 and females were 30. 3 males and 4 females had Optic nerve head changes and 1 male and 2 females had field changes. The difference was significant (P&lt;0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is increase chance of eye disorders in patients with thyroid disorders. Authors found correlation of hypothyroidism with glaucoma.</p> Sanjeev Prasad Hemaxi Desai Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 OT01 OT03 Assessment of Blindness in Patients with Uveitis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1216 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Uveitis is an intraocular inflammation involving primarily the uveal tract. The present study was conducted to assess blindness in patients with uveitis.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study was conducted on 94 patients of uveitis of both genders. Detailed ocular examination was done by slit lamp biomicroscopy and direct/indirect ophthalmoscopy. In all patients, ocular symptoms, duration and recurrence were noted. Visual acuity was examined with the help of Snellen’s test type and field of vision was recorded with Bjerrum screen.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 94 patients, males were 52 and females were 42. Anterior uveitis was seen in 30, intermediate in 15, posterior in 22 and panuveitis in 27 cases. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). There were 8 unilateral and 9 bilateral cases of visual loss in anterior type of uveitis followed by 10 unilateral and 7 bilateral in posterior uveitis. The difference was non- significant (P&gt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that there were higher numbers of visual loss patients in anterior and posterior type of uveitis.</p> Sanjeev Rohatgi Malini Vohra Preeti Chaubey Rajesh Ranjan Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 OT04 OT06 Assessment of Visual Outcome in Patients with Phacolytic Glaucoma- A Clinical Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1217 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cataractous lenses manifest a number of changes such as protein modification. The present study was conducted to assess factors affecting the visual outcome in patients with phacolytic glaucoma.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>Present study was conducted on 56 patients of phacolytic glaucoma of both genders. Patients were subjected to slit lamp examination. Fundus examination, IOP measurement and gonioscopy were done in all cases. Small Incision Cataract Surgerywas done followed by posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in all cases.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 58 patients, males were 58 and females were 26. Common complications were visual disturbances in 1, iritis in 7 and hyphema in 2 cases. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Clinical presentation was deep anterior chamber with flare in 40, lens matter in anterior chamber in 6 and pseudohypopyon in 12 cases.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that the outcome found to be better. There were less complications in the groups.</p> Sanjeev Rohatgi Malini Vohra Preeti Chaubey Rajesh Ranjan Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 OT07 OT09 A Gender Based Comparison to Assess Head Length, Hand Length, Foot Length, Arm Span to Predict Stature of Individual: An Observational Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1204 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Personal identification means determination of individuality of a person. Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. The present study was used to assess head length, hand length, foot length, arm span to predict stature of individual based on gender.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>In this prospective observational study 600 patients attending in the Outpatient department of medical, dental and other college’s students of age group 21-25 years in various colleges at Jaipur, India were selected for the study. The measurement of stature, head length, head breadth, hand length, foot length, arm span. The data collected was compiled, tabulated, analyzed and subjected to statistical tests. Analysis was done using SPSS.<strong>Results:</strong>In the present study total participants were 600 in which 300 were males and 300 were females. Mean age of females was found to be 22.82 and mean age of males was found to be 22.96. 160 persons were aged 21 years i.e. 26.6%, 175 persons were aged 22 years i.e. 29.16%, 91 were aged 23 years i.e. 15.1%, 85 were aged 24 years i.e. 14.1% whereas 89 were aged 25 years i.e. 14.83%. In present study most common age group was found to be 22 years and 24 years was the least common age group. Body height (cm) in male and female was observed to be statistically significant, for head length, significant statistical difference was observed, for head breath significant difference was observed. For hand length, significant statistical difference was observed, for foot length, significant statistical difference was observed, for arm span, significant statistical difference was observed.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study conclude that a significant difference was observed in height, head length, head breadth, hand length, arm span &amp; foot length in between males and females.</p> Santosh Kumar Chandrakala Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AT01 AT05 Study of Relative Position of the Mental Foramen in Different Age Groups: An Institutional Based Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1205 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mental foramen is located on the anterolateral surface of the body of the mandible. Mental foramen is an important anatomical landmark. It is used for the anesthetists and dental surgeons during various oral and maxillofacial procedures/ surgeries.Aim: To study relative position of the Mandibular foramen in different age groups of adults.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>In this study we have selected 800 patients. The present study was carried out on CBCT scans procured from the Dental Hospitals in Jaipur, Rajasthan. A detailed study of morphometric features of mental foramen along with other parameters of the mandible was carried out on the coronal, axial and sagittal views of CBCT scans using “CS 3D Imaging v3.5.7”. Patients were divided in groups based on age.<strong>Results:</strong>The most common position of mental foramen in current study was found to be position 4 followed by position 3. No statistical difference was observed in or study in respect of position of MF association with different age group.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>A variation in mental foramen is very common and a good knowledge of anatomical landmark can help to prevent surgical injuries.</p> Deepak Sharma Chandrakala Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AT06 AT08 Assessment of Proportion of Radiologically Confirmed Osteoporosis Cases among the Suspected Cases of Female: An Institutional Based Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1206 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Preventing osteoporosis, a multi factorial disease, resides not only in recognizing its risk factors, but also in identifying potentially modifiable determinants of bone mineral density (BMD), the surrogate measure for osteoporosis.&nbsp; Thus, the present study is designed to assess and compare the risk factors of osteoporosis among women as to prevent&nbsp; osteoporosis, a multi factorial disease, resides not only in recognizing its risk factors, but also in identifying potentially modifiable determinants of bone mineral density (BMD), the surrogate measure for osteoporosis.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present prospective observational analytical study was commenced among 350 females aged between 30-65years who were referred to the Radio diagnosis department as suspected cases of osteoporosis from various outpatient departments. Women in sample after DEXA scan were categorized in two groups; group A comprised women those having normal BMD, considered as control group and group B comprised women with low BMD either osteopenia or osteoporosis included in this group. Datawas collected according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.The data collected was compiled, tabulated, analyzed and subjected to Pearson Chi-square test for statistical analysis.<strong>Results:</strong>While osteoporosis was found to be significantly higher in Low class women (p&lt;0.07) followed by Middle class and upper socioeconomic status. A significant difference was observed between rural and urban people (p&lt;0.01). Women with moderate and low physical activity were significantly at higher risk of osteoporosis. A highly significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of weight, age, BMI, Waist circumference, Hip circumference, BMD lumbar spine, Lumbar Spine T score, Lumbar spine&nbsp; Z score, Femur neck BMD, Femur neck T score &amp; Femur neck Z score whereas there was no significant difference in terms of Height.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limits of our study we conclude that osteoporosis is one of the growing concern and need immediate care. The lack of information regarding risk factors for osteoporosis among women is an important problem. Our results highlight the importance of knowledge regarding the risk factors like age, menopausal status, physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status, geographical location, weight,BMI etc. There is the need for more effective education for the community and medical practitioners for the clinical significance of osteoporotic fractures and its risk factors.</p> Pooja Pareek Chandrakala Agarwal Arpit Kumar Mathur Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 AT09 AT13 The Role of High Resolution Sonography in the Evaluation of Anterior Abdominal Wall Lesions http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1225 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Clinical presentation of anterior abdominal wall pathologies are non-specific. Based on physical examination alone, it is often difficult to diagnose the specific anterior abdominal wall pathologies. The aims of the study were, to evaluate accuracy of the high-resolution sonography in the diagnosis of anterior abdominal wall pathologies.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>All patients referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis with the clinical manifestations of various anterior abdominal lesion in a period of 2 years, were subjected for the study. 50 cases were taken up for the study. All patients included in the study underwent anterior abdominal wall ultrasonography using 7.0-12.0 MHZ high frequency linear array transducer coupled with color doppler equipment. This was followed by pelvic scan using 3.5-5.0 MHZ transducer whenever required. Findings during surgery and histopathology reports were noted and compared with the sonographic features.<strong>Results:</strong>Our study showed high prevalence of anterior abdominal lesions in patients between the age group of 20-40 years which constituted 60% of all cases. Most common presentation was seen in females (66%). Incisional hernia was the predominant anterior abdominal wall lesion constituting 44%, followed by ventral hernias14% lipomas and hematomas both were seen in 8% of cases. Least common was anterior abdominal wall sarcoma seen in 2% cases. Higher resolution sonography is an accurate method for assessment of anterior abdominal wall lesions. Sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 75%, PPV of 97.4%, NPV of 100%. In total diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution sonography was 97.6% in our study.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>High resolution sonography is an accurate diagnostic imaging modality in anterior abdominal wall lesions. It is also highly sensitive in differentiating hernias from cystic or solid abdominal wall lesions.</p> C. Arpita C Ananda Reddy Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 RD01 RD04 Comparison of Different Concentration of Heparin in Prevention of Infusion-Associated Phlebitis http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1224 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) is a common inflammatory thrombotic disorder in which a thrombus develops in a vein located near the surface of the skin. The present study was conducted to compare different concentration of heparin in prevention of infusion-associated phlebitis.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>This study was conducted on 68 patients of both genders. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I patients received 6–8 drops of topical solution of heparin and group II patients received 1g of topical gel over the cannulated vein every 8 hourly. In all patients visual infusion phlebitis scale was recorded.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 68 patients, group I received topical solution of heparin (1000 IU/ml) and group II patients received 1g of topical gel (200 IU/g). The number of patients who developed thrombophlebitis in group I was 16 and in group II was 24. Grade I thrombophlebitis was seen 6 in group I and 15 in group II, grade II was seen 10 in group I and 9 in group II. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). The mean time to develop thrombophlebitis in grade I in group I was 59.1 hours and in group II was 58.2 hours, in grade II was 62.4 hours and 61.6 hours in both groups respectively. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that topical solution of heparin was more effective in the prevention of infusion-associated phlebitis than heparin gel.</p> Devesh Gupta Ishteyaque Ahmad Shaily Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 8 4 PC01 PC03 Traumatic Optic Neuropath: Is this the Ideal Management Protocol? http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmr/article/view/1208 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim of this randomized prospective study was to evaluate the management protocol decided in the cases of Traumatic optic neuropathy.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>All the cases with a diagnosis of Traumatic optic neuropathy were managed using medical management with the steroids and cases not responding were operated upon by transnasal trans sphenoidal optic nerve decompression and the results were evaluated.<strong>Results:</strong>Patients presenting early and those who were operated early in the course of their illness showed a better recovery. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Early intervention and following a defined management protocol can help preventing the blindness in as many as 80% of the cases following the injury.</p> Ehtesham Ahmad Raushan Alok Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Research 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 8 4 EN01 EN03