Cognitive dysfunctions in patients with bipolar disorder: A comparative study from Western Rajasthan

Cognitive dysfunctions in patients with bipolar disorder

  • Ankit Awasthi Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Pali, Rajasthan, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0901-6696
  • Arpit Koolwal Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Nikita Dhaka Consultant Psychiatrist, Hisar, Haryana, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3290-8297
  • Ghanshyam Das Koolwal Senior Professor and Head, Department of Psychiatry, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Sanjay Gehlot Senior Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Keywords: Bipolar Disorder, Cognitive Impairment, Intelligence, Memory

Abstract

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is an established entity in bipolar disorder. The affected individuals exhibit wide-ranging deficits involving multiple domains of cognitive functioning. These deficits are associated with poor functional outcome and residual disability in patients. A substantial literature exists globally on cognition in bipolar disorder; however, few studies have been carried out on this subject in India and    in Rajasthan. The aim of the study is to compare cognitive functions of bipolar disorder patients and healthy control subjects. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatry department of a tertiary care institution on 50 bipolar disorder patients and matched healthy controls subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The diagnosis was made by DSM-V criteria, and symptom severity was determined by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). After seeking socio-demographic details, all participants were administered the Post Graduate Institute Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGI-BBD) to assess cognitive functioning. Data collected were subjected to suitable statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test). Results: The majority of the bipolar disorder patients (54%) were under 35 years of age, were males (60%), were from the urban background (70%), and were married (82%). Bipolar disorder patients performed poorly on all domains of cognitive functioning, i.e. memory, performance and verbal intelligence, and perceptuo-motor skills. Conclusion: The present study affirmed the previous findings of wide-spread cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder patients. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are the key steps to reduce the cognitive morbidity associated with this disorder.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Augusto LM. Unconscious knowledge: A survey. Adv Cogn Psychol. 2010;6:116–141. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10053-008-0081-5.

Etkin A, Gyurak A, O’Hara R. A neurobiological approach to the cognitive deficits of psychiatric disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2013;15(4):419–429.

Sivakumar T, Dalal PK. Cognitive psychiatry in India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52(7):128–128. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.69224.

Bourne C, Aydemir Ö, Balanzá-Martínez V, Bora E, Brissos S, Cavanagh JTO, et al. Neuropsychological testing of cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar disorder: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;128(3):149–162. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.12133.

Carvalho AF, Bortolato B, Miskowiak K, Vieta E, Köhler C. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:3111–3125. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ndt.s76700.

Martínez-Arán A, Vieta E, Reinares M, Colom F, Torrent C, Sánchez-Moreno J, et al. Cognitive Function Across Manic or Hypomanic, Depressed, and Euthymic States in Bipolar Disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(2):262–270. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.262.

Kurtz MM, Gerraty RT. A meta-analytic investigation of neurocognitive deficits in bipolar illness: Profile and effects of clinical state. Neuropsychology. 2009;23(5):551–562. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016277.

Elshahawi HH, Essawi H, Rabie MA, Mansour M, Beshry ZA, Mansour AN. Cognitive functions among euthymic bipolar I patients after a single manic episode versus recurrent episodes. J Affect Disord. 2011;130(1-2):180–191. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.027.

Vrabie M, Marinescu V, Talaşman A, Tăutu O, Drima E, Micluţia I. Cognitive impairment in manic bipolar patients: important, understated, significant aspects. Ann General Psychiatry. 2015;14(1):41. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-015-0080-0.

Bonnín CM, Martínez-Arán A, Torrent C, Pacchiarotti I, Rosa AR, Franco C, et al. Clinical and neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome in bipolar euthymic patients: A long-term, follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2010;121(1-2):156–160. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.014.

Pradhan BK, Chakrabarti S, Nehra R, Mankotia A. Cognitive functions in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia: Comparison. Psychiat Clin Neuros. 2008;62(5):515–525. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01844.x.

Green MF. Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(10):e12.

Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VE, Meyer DA. A Rating Scale for Mania: Reliability, Validity and Sensitivity. Br J Psychiatry. 1978;133(5):429–435. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.133.5.429.

Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1960;23(1):56–62. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.23.1.56.

Pershad D, Verma SK. 1st ed. and others, editor. Agra, India: National Psychological Corp.; 1990.

Torrent C, Martínez-Arán A, Daban C, Sánchez-Moreno J, Comes M, Goikolea JM, et al. Cognitive impairment in bipolar II disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;189(3):254–259. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.105.017269.

Pattanayak RD, Sagar R, Mehta M. Neuropsychological perfor- mance in euthymic Indian patients with bipolar disorder type I: Correlation between quality of life and global functioning. Psy- chiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;66(7):553–563. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2012.02400.x.

Strakowski SM, Adler CM, Almeida J, Altshuler LL, Blumberg HP, Chang KD, et al. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model. Bipolar Disord. 2012;14(4):313–325. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01022.x.

Joseph MF, Frazier TW, Youngstrom EA, Soares JC. A quan- titative and qualitative review of neurocognitive performance in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharma- col. 2008;18(6):595–605. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2008.064.

Published
2020-07-06
How to Cite
Awasthi, A., Koolwal, A., Dhaka, N., Koolwal, G. D., & Gehlot, S. (2020). Cognitive dysfunctions in patients with bipolar disorder: A comparative study from Western Rajasthan. Asian Journal of Medical Research, 9(2), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.47009/ajmr.2020.9.2.PY1