Comparison of Intra-Articular Bupivacaine and Neostigmine with Bupivacaine and Fentanyl for Post-Operative Analgesia in Arthroscopic Knee Surgeries
Post-Operative Analgesia in Arthroscopic Knee Surgeries
Background: The post-operative pain in knee arthroscopy procedures can be attributed to irritation of free nerve endings of synovial tissue, anterior fat pad, and joint capsule during surgical excision and resection1. In the recent years, new interest has focused on the cholinergic system that modulates pain perception and transmission. The present study is designed to compare the efficacy of intra- articular Bupivacaine and Neostigmine with Bupivacaine and Fentanyl for pain relief following arthroscopic surgeries.Subjects and Methods:Prospective, Interventional, Randomised study was conducted over 90 patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic knee surgery, who were randomly allocated into three equal groups of 30 patients each. Group I-Bupivacaine with Neostigmine, Group II-Bupivacaine with Fentanyl and Group III-Bupivacaine alone. The study drug combinations were administered Intra-articularly at the conclusion of surgery. Hemodynamic variables and Pain were observed immediately after completion of surgery (Baseline) and thereafter at fixed intervals. The duration of effective analgesia was measured from the “baseline” until the first use of rescue analgesic. The number of rescue analgesics given in 24 hours were also recorded. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software.Results:Requirement for first analgesia was significantly earlier in Group III (146.00±71.66 minutes) as compared to Group II (236.00±111.34 minutes) and Group I (648.00±228.55 minutes). Majority of patients of Group I (90.0%) required rescue analgesia only once while in was twice in Group II (90.00%) and thrice in Group III (86.67%).Conclusion:Intra-articular administration of Neostigmine in combination with Bupivacaine provided a better post-operative analgesic effect with a lower incidence of side effects and lesser requirement of rescue analgesia.