Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research (AJMRR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in radiology and medical imaging. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2347-338X | Print ISSN: 2347-3371</strong></p> en-US dir.aijournals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) Fri, 01 Mar 2019 16:00:01 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Evaluation of Suspected Interstitial Lung Disease Cases. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/469 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a large group of diseases that causes scarring of lung tissue. Diagnosis of exact etiology of ILD is usually by clinico-radiologic-pathologic correlation. HRCT of Lung plays a crucial role in diagnosis of etiology of ILD &amp; determining prognosis. <strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the HRCT findings in clinically suspected cases of ILD and to compare the role of HRCT with Chest X ray in diagnosis of ILD. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was conducted among 50 consecutive, consenting patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease. History and clinical details of all study participants were noted and first examined with chest radiography and then exposed to HRCT. The data thus collected was properly coded and entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using the software SPSS version 16.0. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study population was 48.84 years (SD=14.46).60% of the study participants were males. Specific diagnoses could be made in 25.7% of abnormal case with radiograph and clinical correlation and in 57% with HRCT and clinical correlation. Most common pattern identified was reticular (60%) and most common anatomical area of involvement identified was lower lobe (54.28%). Most common etiology among the cases was idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (20%) followed by sarcoidosis (11.4%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis and Hypersensitivity pneumonitis along with non specific type were the most frequent types of ILD identified in the study. The current study demonstrates a better diagnostic efficacy for HRCT when compared to chest X ray in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease.</p> Sunil M, Mishal Mohammed, Y Thiruvarul ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/469 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Patients with Blunt Abdominal Injuries by Ultrasonography and Multidetector Computed Tomography. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/470 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) usually occurs due to road traffic accidents (RTA), fall from heights or during sports. Prevalence of intraabdominal injury varies widely, ranging from 7.7% to 65%. The aim of study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (USG) &amp; multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in identifying intra abdominal injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and to compare-provide information that could accurately determine choice of management (non-operative vs operative). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was a prospective study; total 50 patients were included in this study. This study was conducted at Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Chalmeda AnandRao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimagar. The study period was during from October 2015 to September 2017. USG examinations were performed with a curvilinear and linear probe on GE Voluson S6&amp; Philips Envisor C HD. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 38 cases were positive for intra abdominal injury and 12 cases were negative for intra abdominal injury. 30 patients underwent surgery and the remaining cases were managed conservatively. Most of the patients admitted to this hospital were victims of vehicular accidents. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) as accounting for 33 cases (66%) of the blunt abdominal trauma. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concluded that MDCT is the superior diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma. USG can be a valuable initial investigation; however, USG can miss crucial injuries and may lead to inappropriate management in some patients.</p> Ravi Kiran G, Harshavardhan NS, Anil U Madurwar, Santhosh D ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/470 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasonography in the Era of 3 Tesla MRCP: A Comparative Study in Obstructive Jaundice. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/471 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Biliary obstruction is caused by various diseases. In a suspected case of biliary obstruction with clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of obstructive jaundice, the main aim of radiologist is to confirm the presence of obstruction identify its location, extent and probable cause. 3D MRCP virtually demonstrates anatomy of the biliary and pancreatic ducts in 3 Tesla MRI system. Ultrasonography still remains the first imaging modality for obstructive jaundice. The aim of the study was to&nbsp; evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of USG vs. MRCP with 3 Tesla MRI in patients of obstructive jaundice. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>After institutional ethical committee approval, 90 patients confirmed to have features of obstructive jaundice referred for Ultrasonography and MRCP and subsequently underwent ERCP / Surgery were evaluated. It was a Prospective correlational study. Inclusion Criteria were patients with clinical diagnosis of obstructive jaundice referred for Ultrasonography and MRCP and subsequently underwent ERCP / Surgery. Exclusion Criteria were patients non compatible for MRI and other modalities (ERCP), Patients in whom histological diagnosis was not available, Patients unwilling for MRCP / ERCP / Surgery. <strong>Results:</strong> Accuracy of ultrasound was 75 % and MRCP 98 % in detection and delineation of obstructive biliary pathologies. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for choledocholithiasis is 80%, 100% &amp; 80% respectively for Ultrasonography and 100% for MRCP. The Sensitivity and Specificity for Ultrasonography was 71% and 100% in detection of biliary obstruction secondary to biliary strictures and for MRCP, the sensitivity and specificity was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity for malignant pathologies in this study was 73 % and 100% respectively on Ultrasonography, while that on MRCP was 93.3% and 100% respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasonography as a screening modality is useful to confirm or exclude biliary dilatation and to choose patients for MRCP examination. MRCP is an important non-invasive imaging investigation in the pre-operative evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice. Magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography, combines the advantages of projectional imaging with those of cross-sectional imaging, is an established diagnostic technique. Technical advances over the past decade, including the refinement of 3.0-T imaging capabilities, have added to the usefulness of this noninvasive method. Though MRCP can be considered as the gold standard for diagnostic non-invasive evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary system in cases of obstructive jaundice, ultrasound will always remain the first choice.</p> Vikram Patil, Sudha Kiran Das, Dr Devkant, Rudresh Hiremath, Sachin Shetty, Vinay Raj ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/471 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 MRI Evaluation of Low Back Ache Cases with Radiologic Evidence of Degenerative Lumbar Spine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/473 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Back pain is one of the leading cause of occupational disability and limiting factor in performing activities of daily living.Identifying the exact cause of low back ache is a tedious task, but is critical in planning the management of the condition. Magnetic resonance imaging is regarded as the most sensitive method in pointing out the exact pathology. <strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the MRI findings in patients with low back ache with radiologic evidence of degenerative lumbar spine. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was conducted among 80 patients who were sent for MRI evaluation, from Orthopedics and General Medicine department, with low back ache and radiographic evidence of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. MRI was taken in all study subjects and the findings were noted. The data thus collected was properly coded and entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using the software SPSS version 16.0. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study population was 51.46 years (SD=12.58 years and majority (73.75%) were males. Most common associated clinical findings was radicular pain syndrome (36.25%) followed by&nbsp; weakness of lower limbs(18.75%).MRI demonstrated following findings: dehydrative changes(86.25%), reduction in disc space(67%), disc protrusion(36.25%), disc extrusion(6%), disc bulge(56%), spondylolisthesis (18.75%),spinal stenosis(7.5%),Schmorl’s nodes(4%), hemangioma (2.5%) and&nbsp; vertebral body destruction (1.25%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dehydrative changes and reduction of disc space were the most common MRI findings. Disc protrusion, disc extrusion as well was disc bulge was most commonly seen at L4-L5 level while spondylolisthesis was common at L5-S1 level.</p> Mishal Mohammed, Sunil M, Y Thiruvarul ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/473 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analytical Study of Temporal Bone Pathologies and Anatomical Variations on High Resolution CT. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/510 <p><strong>Background: </strong>High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), a modification of routine CT, owing to its ability to delineate intricate osseous anatomy and admirable topographic visualization, is widely used for accurate assessment of temporal bone pathologies prior to surgical exploration. The present study was undertaken to evaluate temporal bone in diseased ears by HRCT and its importance in patient management. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This prospective study was conducted in the department of Radiodiagnosis of a large tertiary care hospital in Northern India. A total of 50 patients with clinically proven middle ear disease with hearing loss or chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled into this study. All cases were evaluated with 128 slice CT scanner (Philips Medical systems, Cleveland, USA). <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of patients in our study was 29.52 ± 21.48 years. Maximum patients with temporal bone pathologies had either sclerosed or under-pneumatized mastoids. Limited numbers of anatomical variations were noted with Korner's septum being the most common variation (7.14 %). Others variations included high jugular bulb (2.86 %), facial nerve dehiscence (2.86 %), labyrinthine fistula (2.86 %) and foramen tympanicum (1.43 %). Otomastoiditis was the most frequently encountered pathological condition in the study population (72.86 %), followed by cholesteatoma (32.86 %). Congenital malformations were seen in 10 cases (14.29%) with type I incomplete partition (5.71%) being the most common malformation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>HRCT of temporal bone is useful in identifying common ear pathologies and anatomical variations prior to the surgery and thereby planning appropriate surgical approach.</p> Lalit Kumar, Ankur Malhotra, Rajul Rastogi, Vijai Pratap ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/510 Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Myocysticercosis https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/541 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Myocysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by encysted larvae of taenia solium. The infection occurs due to ingestion of taenia eggs in raw or undercooked pork, contaminated water or vegetables which are disseminated by hematogenous route to various tissues of the human body. Myocysticercosis occurs due to muscular involvement by the parasite and is more common in population having poor access to sanitation facilities.&nbsp; Ultrasonography is a convenient, easily accessible and cost effective modality which can be used to demonstrate the various appearances of myocysticercosis. FNAC is diagnostic and helpful in identifying the parasite and its body parts. <strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> To evaluate the role of ultrasonogaphy in the diagnosis of myocysticercosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in the Radiology department of Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad. We included 50 pathologically confirmed cases of myocysticercosis who had undergone ultrasound evaluation by linear ultrasound probe 9L4 of Siemens Acuson S2000 ultrasound machine <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 50 patients that were enrolled in our study , the most common appearance was of well defined cystic lesion of variable size with an&nbsp; eccentric, echogenic scolex. Other appearances include ill defined cystic lesion with or without scolex or a completely calcified myocysticercosis. Most common location was found to be anterior abdominal wall followed by lower extremities, upper extremities and facial muscles subsequently. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that ultrasound is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of mycocysticercosis with characteristic diagnostic appearances.</p> Mohini Chaudhary, Deepak Singla, Shruti Chandak, Ashutosh Kumar, Arjit Agarwal, Vijai Pratap ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/541 Sun, 17 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Assessing Cervical Length by Transvaginal Ultrasound before Induction of Labour https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/579 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical length, measured by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), to predict successful induction of labor at term and association of cervical length measurements with induction of labor. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study design was used to collect data was collected from 50 women between 36-40 weeks of gestation who presented at the study institute. Cervical length was measured using transvaginal ultrasound and the association of cervical length with induction of labour was examined. A p value &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant. <strong>Results:</strong> Twenty one (51.21%, 95% CI: 36.49, 65.74) of 41 pregnant women had successful induction of labour. The mean cervical length of the 41 study participants was 20.19 ± 5.87 (range 10 to 32) mm. Twenty five women had a cervical length &lt; than 20. Cervical length was associated (X2 test p=0.007) with successful induction of labour. Mean cervical length was significantly different (student t test p=0.0003) between women with successful induction of labour (17.14 ± 3.94 mm) and women with failed induction of labour (23.4 ± 5.92 mm).Cervical length showed slightly good sensitivity (80.95%). It showed a positive predictive value of 68%, negative predictive value of 75% and specificity of 60%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Transvaginal ultrasound measures of cervical length before inducing a patient can help to identify women at risk for failed induction and reduce rate of unnecessary caesarean section and complications of prolonged and failed labour after induction.</p> Sherine Marian, Chidananda Murthy M, Rohit Kumar Sharma, Prajwith Rai, Francis N. P. Monteiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/579 Wed, 03 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Utility of Computed Tomography of Abdomen and Pelvis in Cases of Intestinal Obstruction https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/580 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bowel obstruction is a common clinical condition that occurs secondary to mechanical or functional obstruction of the bowel. It is a frequent cause of hospitalization and surgical consultation, representing 20% of all surgical admissions for acute abdominal pain. Objectives: To evaluate the level and cause of intestinal obstruction. Assess the accuracy of imaging findings in correlation with operative findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study of 43 patients who presented with acute intestinal obstruction to our hospital. All the subjects underwent CT scan of abdomen and pelvis in helical multi-detector CT scan machine. The CT scan of abdomen and pelvis findings was compared and correlated with intra-operative findings. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 43 cases, 28 are males (65%) and 15 are females (35%). Only 17 cases (39.5%) had features of intestinal obstruction on the ultrasonography and only 13 cases (30%) had features of obstruction on abdominal radiography. This study showed 36 patients (83%) had small bowel obstruction and 7 (17%) had large bowel obstruction. In the small bowel, ileum was most common site to be obstructed accounting for about 63.8% of all small bowel obstruction. CT showed 100% correlation with intra-operative findings in assessing the level of obstruction. The most common cause for obstruction is post–operative adhesions which are seen in about 23.2 % cases. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study shows that CT is the imaging modality of choice in patients with acute intestinal obstruction to evaluate the level and cause of intestinal obstruction which did correlate well with intra-operative findings.</p> Bysani Swaroop, Sindhu N, Parthasarathi A, Gautam M ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/580 Wed, 03 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Is Computed Tomographic Scanning Alters the Management of Patients with Suspected Cholesteatoma? https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/653 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cholesteatoma is an abnormal skin growth that can develop in middle section of your ear behind the eardrum; a cholesteatoma may also be caused by a poorly functioning eustachian tube, which is the tube that leads from the back of the nose to the middle of the ear. It causes mainly chorionic ear infection, sinus infection, cold and allergies. This may cause a section of eardrum to be pulled into middle ear, creating a cyst than can turn into cholesteatoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A prospective, analytical study was conducted among 90 patients with complaint of unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media which were randomly selected from outpatient Department of ENT at Shridev Suman Subharti Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The patients comprised of both males as well as females and also of different age groups. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 90 patients, 61(67.22%) were males followed by 29 (32.22%) females. The minimum age of patient in the study was of 8years and the maximum age of patient in study of 50 years. Maximum number of patients belonged to the age group of 11-20 (50%). The mean age in this study was 23 years. Among study subjects, 32 (35.55%) cases had conductive hearing loss, 11(12.22%) cases had sensorineural type, 40(44.44%) had mixed type and 7(7.77%) had no response. Out of 90 study subjects, 46 (51.11%) had cholesteatoma. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The clinical and radiological findings showed a high level sensitivity with intra operative findings as regards to the presence of cholesteatoma, changes of the ossicular chain and erosion of the lateral semicircular canal. HRCT findings, in the treatment of any congenital abnormality of the ear were a good guide to the surgeon for planning and management.</p> Navin Shukla, Varuni Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/653 Mon, 25 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation and Evaluation of the Preoperative Computed Tomography with Preoperative Surgical Findings in Patients with Unsafe Chronic Supppurative Otitis Media https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/654 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is one of the most common causes of preventable hearing loss especially in developing countries. It is described as a condition of the middle ear that is characterized by persistent or recurrent discharge for three months or more through a perforation of the tympanic membrane. The aim and objective of the study is to correlate and compare preoperated computed tomography with preoperative surgical findings with unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A prospective, analytical study was conducted among 90 patients with complaint of unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media which were randomly selected from outpatient Department of ENT at Shridev Suman Subharti Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The patients comprised of both males as well as females and also of different age groups. <strong>Results:</strong> Among 90 study subjects, 32 (35.55%) cases had conductive hearing loss, 11(12.22%) cases had sensorineural type, 40(44.44%) had mixed type and 7(7.77%) had no response. On comparing the per operative findings with those of computed tomography, soft tissue mass in middle ear and mastoid was seen in 87 cases (96.66%) per operatively whereas on computed tomography, it was observed in 80 cases (88.88%). Mastoid air cells were found sclerosed in 72 cases (80%) both per operatively and on computed tomography. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, the present study pointed that high resolution computed tomography scanning is a modality which can accurately image the pathological anatomy in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media and represents a major advance in the diagnostic imaging of this disease.</p> Navin Shukla, Varuni Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/654 Sat, 25 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrum of Magnetic Resonance imaging in Afebrile Pediatric Epilepsy https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/655 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pediatric neurological disorders are commonly encountered. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorder in childhood. Clinically diagnosis is established by two or more unprovoked seizures at least 24 hours apart. It has got considerable importance due to fact that it can cause anxiety in parents. Cortical malformations characterized by abnormal structure of cerebral cortex are one of the major cause for epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice to evaluate the structural anomaly, the cause of seizure disorder and to assess the potential need for surgery. In this study, we tried to evaluate the spectrum of MRI imaging to evaluate afebrile pediatric epilepsy. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was retrospective cross sectional study. We collected data of 400 patients of pediatric epilepsy who underwent non contrast MRI evaluation during June 2017 to January 2019 at department of Radio-diagnosis at GCS Medical college, Hospital and Research Center. Exclusion criteria consist of a recent history of fever and clinical laboratory parameters of any infective cause. MRI was done using 1.5 Tesla equipment. Sequences included Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo (SE), Axial T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE), Coronal oblique fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), Axial diffusion weighted single-shot spin-echo echoplanar, Axial 3D inversion recovery prepped fast SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled). <strong>Results: </strong>The most common detected changes were unilateral and bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (21% &amp; 9% respectively), cortical dysplasia (1.5%), migrational anomalies, neurocutaneous syndromes and few cortical neoplasms (0.5 to 1%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI in today's world plays a deciding role in diagnostic work-up of a child with epilepsy.</p> Ajay Upadhyay, Asutosh Dave, Jaideep jagani, Mayankkumar Patel, Nishant Patel, Sarita Mirchandani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/655 Sat, 25 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Find Normal Dimensions of Spinal Cord on MRI in Indian Population https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/656 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knowledge of normal measurements of the spinal cord is essential in diagnosing and interpreting various spinal disorders. There is sparse data on normal morphometry of spinal cord in Indian population. Aims and objectives: To obtain dimensions of the human spinal cord, at various vertebral levels&nbsp; in normal population on MRI. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional observational study was done on 60 healthy subjects aged between 20 to 40 years who underwent MRI in a tertiary care centre from December 2017 to Dec 2018. Dimensions of the multiple segments of human spinal cord were measured in Antero-posterior and transverse diameters at each level by high resolution T2-weighted images by 1.5 T Philips MR System Achieva. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of subjects was 28 years. In the cervical segment, the AP diameter of the spinal cord was greatest at C1 (7.74 mm in males, 6.63 mm in females) and lowest at C7. The Transverse diameter decreased from C1 to C2 level, and then increased from C2 to C5, with C5 (12.84 mm in males and 11.55 mm in females) being the maximum enlarged segment and then decreased towards C7. In the upper thoracic cord, the AP diameter and transverse diameter was maximum at D1 and decreased gradually from D1 to D6. In the lower thoracic cord, the AP diameter and transverse diameter was maximum at D12. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Spinal cord dimensions vary at different segments and also between males and females. Hence, there is a need to establish normal reference values of spinal cord diameters at various levels.</p> Tukaram Rathod, Joish Upendra Kumar, Sahana Mathad, Chaitanya Dhotre ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/656 Sat, 25 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 MRI Findings in Pott’s Spine with its Histopathological Correlation https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/731 <p><strong>Background: </strong>MRI is now the preferred imaging modality and preferred technique to define the activity and extent of infection for patients with suspected spinal tuberculosis. The objective of the study was to describe diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis and various radiological features of spinal tuberculosis (TB) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Out of total 45 cases of suspected tuberculosis in our study we given 38 case as spinal spondylo-discitis out of which 36 cases accurately diagnosed by MRI proved by histopathology or culture reports.&nbsp; And 7 cases of given non tubercular out of which 1 case came to be tubercular spondylodiscitis on histopathology.&nbsp; MRI case records of these 37 patients with proven tuberculosis retrospectively analysed. <strong>Results:</strong> The majority of the patients were males 60% (22/37) and most common age group is 31 to 50 years age group (45%). The most common clinical presentation was backache 81% (n=30) followed by fever 22/37 cases (59.45%). The Thoraco-lumbar spine was the commonest site of the disease (38.64%) followed by the lumbar region (31.82%). An intervertebral disc involvement, pre and paravertebral collections, subligamental extension of the abscess were commonly seen, with an epidural collection occurring in more than 75 % of the cases. In addition few cases also showed single vertebral involvement (n-3) and few cases shows skip lesions. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The MRI scan is highly sensitive in the detection of various pathological processes of spinal tuberculosis and their pattern of occurrence. The extent of soft tissue involvement disease is best assessed by MRI which help in guiding the surgical treatment as well as to monitor the response to treatment during follow up.</p> Sangeeta Saxena, Bhajan lal, Dharm Raj Meena, Harsh Vardhan, Abhishek Gupta, Chandraveer Singh Godara ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/731 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Comparitive Evaluation on Computed Tomography and Magnatic Resonance Imaging https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/732 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cancers are the most common cause of death in adults. Oral cancer is any malignant neoplasm which is found on the lip, floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingiva, palate or in the tongue. Oral cancer is among the top three types of cancers in India. In India most of the (nearly 90-95%) oral cancers is squamous cell carcinoma. Aim of our study is to detect the Pattern of tumor spread and contribution of CT and MRI in staging of oral cavity. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In this prospective study we studied 46 patients after proper informed and written consent. Clinical complaints were recorded along with other relevant demographic data. Each patient underwent CT scan and MRI. Results of radiological investigations were correlated with Histopathology. Imaging modalities were used in tumor staging, cervical lymph nodes assessment, bone (mandible) invasion &amp; muscles of tongue invasion. <strong>Results:</strong> We have observed that Oral cavity SCC is more common in the age group of 51-60 years, with male is to female ratio 1.71. Most common location is buccal mucosa and most common risk factor is tobacco chewing. CT scan is less sensitive (67.39%) modality than MRI scan (84.78%) in detection of primary tumor stage; whereas no significant statistical difference is observed in CT and MRI for cervical lymph nodes detection. In detection of mandibular invasion MRI is more sensitive (80.01%) but equally specificity (92.31%) than to CT scan (sensitivity 68.42% &amp; specificity 88.89%). For muscle of tongue invasion MRI is more sensitive and specific (89.47% &amp; 88.89%, respectively) than to CT (sensitivity is 50.01% &amp; specificity is 92.31%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT and MRI are nearly similar in assessing cervical node metastasis. For bone invasion MRI is a superior over CT in our study, but this difference is not significant. MRI was considered superior to CT scan in evaluating the primary tumor extent and muscle of tongue infiltration with significant statistical difference.</p> Sangeeta Saxena, Abhishek Gupta, Dharmaraj Meena, Harshvardhan Khokhar, Bhajan Lal, Chandraveer Godara ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/732 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Characterisation of Liver Lesions on Triple Phase Computed Tomography and Studying the Social Demographics of the Liver Lesions https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/733 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess and characterize liver lesions using triple phase multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a tool and to study the social demographics of the patients with liver lesions. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A hospital based retrospective analysis of 150 patients was done on patients with liver lesions who had undergone triple phase MDCT to characterize the liver lesions as was advised post ultrasonography or based on clinical suspicion, in a period of 3 years, from January 2015 to December 2017 in Rajarajeswari medical college and hospital and findings of triple phase MDCT were correlated with clinical/ histopathological or post-operative findings. The results were then analysed to arrive at conclusions. <strong>Results:</strong> Of the total of 150 patients with liver lesions. there were 104 benign and 46 malignant lesions. Hemangioma and metastasis were seen to be the most common lesions, with hemangioma accounting for 35 cases (24%) and metastasis 28 cases (18.6%). There were 17 cases (12%) each of abscess and simple cysts, 21 (14%) cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 17 cases (11%) of hydatid cysts. There were 8 cases (5%) cases of focal fatty infiltration, 3 cases cases of hepatic laceration, 1% cases each of focal nodular hyperplasia, cholangiocarcinoma and hepatic contusion. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Triphasic MDCT, owing to its strength of high speed mapping of the liver in the immediate arterial, portal venous and delayed phase assessing the enhancement pattern of lesions is an accurate and highly sensitive tool in diagnosing and characterising liver lesions.</p> Anil Kumar Shukla, Javaji Ravi Prasad, Prashanth J ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/733 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study on CT Evaluation Intracranial Calcifications https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/735 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Deposition of calcium is a common process which is seen in both age related and disease related processes. While other imaging modalities&nbsp; are&nbsp; also&nbsp; there&nbsp; which&nbsp; may aid&nbsp; in&nbsp; identification&nbsp; of&nbsp; intracranial&nbsp; calcium deposition, CT remains most reliable and sensitive means in their identification. With this, we aim to identify and determine the calcium deposition in various brain structures in accordance to their location, incidence, size, number and pattern of calcification. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study of 100 patients with intracranial physiological and pathological calcifications over a period of 18 months. Unenhanced CT of the brain was performed for these patients in the axial plane, complemented by coronal &amp; sagittal 3D reconstruction with contrast study in selected cases. The patients were referred&nbsp; to&nbsp; our&nbsp; department&nbsp; and&nbsp; from&nbsp; other&nbsp; departments&nbsp; mainly&nbsp; department&nbsp; of Medicine and Pediatrics. <strong>Results:</strong> Intracranial calcifications both physiological and pathological are more common in older age. The Choroid plexus has highest incidence in the sample data by 81 %( 81 cases). The highest incidence of pathological calcification is found in&nbsp; the age&nbsp; group of more than&nbsp; 40&nbsp; years with infection’s (granulomas) having the highest incidence of 36.62%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>With advent of CT, calcifications were not only easy to appreciate and demonstrate but also several morphological patterns have helped to correlate the types of calcification of the disease process.</p> Mallikarjun M. Devareddy, Kiran Mai ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/735 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Spectrum of MRI Findings in Traumatic Knee Joint https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/736 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The knee joint has three components, the lateral tibiofemoral, medial tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Four bands of tissue, the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, and the medial and lateral collateral ligaments connect the femur and the tibia and provide joint stability. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was performed during a time period of 12 months. The results of the patients who had undergone both MR and arthroscopy studies were taken for analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> The most common age group to be involved was between 41-50 years. The following patterns of knee injuries were seen. Most common injury among cruciate ligaments was ACL tear of which complete tears were more common Posterior cruciate ligament tears were less common. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus, the presence of an anteromedial femoral condyle bone bruise should increase the level of suspicion of a concurrent PLC Knee injury. In addition, we believe that the presence of a posteromedial tibial plateau bone bruise may be a secondary sign of a potential combined PLC injury in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament tear.</p> Priya Gaddgi Modi, Anmol Modi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/736 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of MRI Findings with Arthroscopy in Knee Injuries https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/737 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The knee joint can be imaged using a variety of modalities of which MRI is the most recognized technique posing an excellent imaging modality for all the components of the knee joint namely cartilage, ligaments, tendons, menisci, muscles, bone and bone marrow. Injuries to the intra articular structures can be diagnosed with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Patients with history of pain in the knee with or without swelling where MRI was used as a modality in diagnosing the cause. All patients will be subjected to MR imaging and followed by Arthroscopy. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 40 ACLs diagnosed as completely ruptured at MRI, 27 were confirmed to be completely ruptured, 13 were concluded to be partially ruptured and 6 were found to be normal on arthroscopy. An ACL rupture diagnosed on MRI is an important indicator to look for the co – existence of other injuries of that knee joint. Of all the patients accounting for ACL injury ACLs that were classified at MRI as normal were seen to be normal even on arthroscopy. There by giving MRI a negative predictive value of 97.1 percent for ACL injury. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI increases diagnostic confidence and potentially reduces the need for diagnostic arthroscopy.</p> Priya Gaddgi Modi, Anmol Modi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/737 Fri, 21 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Colour Doppler of Carotid Arteries in Cerebrovascular Insufficiency https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/739 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cerebrovascular accidents constitute a major cause of adult mortality. The principal indication for cerebrovascular Doppler examination is stroke prevention. Colour Doppler sonography is a sensitive method for detection of atherosclerotic plaque and provide considerable information about the extent and severity of plaque as well as the resulting diminution of arterial lumen. The main strengths of Sonography of carotid arteries are patient comfort, lack of risk and accuracy in detecting carotid stenosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was carried out on 40 individuals, among them 20 were symptomatic cases suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency considered as cases and the other 20 asymptomatic cases with unrelated diseases but having one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease were taken as controls. A detailed clinical history, CNS examination findings and evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease were noted. <strong>Results:</strong> Significant stenosis i.e., &gt;40% was found in 12 (60%) of the cases &amp; in 4(20%) asymptomatic controls. Peak systolic velocity ratio showed significant stenosis in 12(60%) of symptomatic cases and in 4(20%) of asymptomatic controls. Plaque characteristics showed 9 hyperechogenic, 8 calcific, 4 low echogenic and 5 moderate or heterogeneous plaques. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The role of carotid Doppler in detecting the site and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque with quantifying the amount of stenosis is very well justified. In addition carotid Doppler can also be used to assess the prognosis in potential symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease.</p> S Mahbub Pasha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/739 Sat, 22 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Patients Subjected for Colour Doppler of Carotid Arteries https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/740 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The management of asymptomatic carotid disease remains controversial. The finding of a cervical bruit has been used as a marker of carotid disease in asymptomatic patients and studies have suggested that these patients are at an increased risk of TIA and strokes when compared with the age matched controls. Some investigator however feel the risks of stroke is not increased in this patients group but they are at increased risk of death from cardiac diseases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was carried out on 40 patients. Among them 20 were symptomatic cases suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency were considered as cases, other 20 asymptomatic individuals with unrelated diseases having one or more risk factors for cerebrovascular disease on the basis of clinical examination and history were taken as controls. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 10 patients (50%) with atheromatous plaque in carotid bifurcation 3 had on right side (30%), 4 on left side (40%) and 3 on both sides (30%).Among the 4 patients (20%) with atheromatous plaque in common carotid artery, 2 on the right side (50%) and 2 on left side (50%).In 6 patients (30%) with atheromatous plaque in internal carotid artery, 1 (16.6%) had on the right side, 2 on the left side (33.3%) and 3 on both sides (50%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among the 40 individuals, 20 were symptomatic cases suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency and the other 20 were taken as controls with unrelated diseases having one or more risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. The incidence of male to female ratio of atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid system among cases was 3:2, while it was 7:3 among the controls.</p> S Mahbub Pasha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/740 Sat, 22 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Diffusion Weighted MRI – The Diagnostic Modality to Differentiate Renal Pseudotumor from Renal Cell Carcinoma in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case Report https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/746 <p>Renal pseudo tumors are rare occurence in patients with chronic kidney disease, most of the times it is detected incidentally on imaging and mimics a renal cell carcinoma. It is imperative to exclude renal cell carcinoma in these patients. A 38-year-old female P2L2A0 presented with menorrhagia, Blood laboratory test revealed elevated creatinine level 2.2 mg/dl. Other blood parameters showed raised urea levels -52, urine protein to creatinine-1.3 and urine protein 1+. Follow up lab values for a period of 3 months revealed persistently raised urea and creatinine levels. MRI with contrast demonstrates small sized bilateral kidneys with parenchymal thinning and multiple well defined lobulated partially exophytic mass lesions, homogenously mildly hyperintense on T2W images, and isointense on T1W images, lesion demonstrated no diffusion restriction on DWI images.</p> Anmol Modi, Chanabasappa Chavadi, Pallavi Patri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/746 Tue, 25 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Obstructive Jaundice – The Radiological Study in Assessing the Level and Cause https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/754 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Obstructive jaundice is a common clinical problem. The main objective of the study is to determine the accuracy of MRCP in the evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in the department of Radio Diagnosis, MGMC&amp;RI, for a period of 2 years. Thirty three patients were included in the study. All the patients were referred to the department of radio diagnosis with the clinical suspicion of obstructive jaundice and elevated serum bilirubin levels. MRCP was done in all the patients. Three experienced radiologists reviewed the images separately and evaluated the cause and site of obstruction in these patients. The accuracy of each modality was analyzed statistically and correlation was made with the surgical findings or histopathological reports. <strong>Results: </strong>Of the thirty three patients, seventeen patients had benign causes of obstructive jaundice while sixteen patients had malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. MRCP had an accuracy of 97% in detecting the cause of obstructive jaundice. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>With the introduction of MRI guided interventions it may soon be possible in the near future to use MRCP for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biliary tract and pancreatic pathology.</p> Antony Jean, Murali Krishna, Prakash Manikka Lakshmanan, Annitha Elavarasi Jayamohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/754 Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000