Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research (AJMRR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in radiology and medical imaging. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2347-338X | Print ISSN: 2347-3371</strong></p> en-US dir.aijournals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) Sun, 14 Jul 2019 06:18:40 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Retrospective Evaluation of Radiographic Findings in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Observational Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/813 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis remains a worldwide health hazard instead well documented well publicized methods of prevention and cure. Chest radiographs are used to stratify for risk and to assess for asymptomatic active disease. Hence; we planned the present study to retrospectively analyze the data of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients for analyzing the spectrum of radiographic findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In the present study, we analyzed the data records of a total of 100 pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A self-framed master cart was prepared in which, past medical history, clinical history, radiographic findings, clinical findings of all the patients was obtained. Data records of only those patients were analyzed in which both clinical and bacteriologic confirmation of the disease was present. Radiographs were evaluated. Only preoperative radiographic findings were taken into consideration. <strong>Results: </strong>The most common radiographic finding was hilar lymph node, found to be present in 66 percent of the patients. Unilateral nodular infiltration was found to be present in 25 percent of the patients. Patchy consolidation was seen in 22 percent of the patients. Fibrotic scar was seen in 10 percent of the patients while calcified nodule was seen in 8 percent of the patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In diagnosing and assessing the extent of severity among tuberculosis patients, radiographic imaging is a vital tool.</p> Nitin Dasrath Wadhwani, Niranjan Bapusaheb Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/813 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of CT Scans Findings in Seizures Patients: An Observational Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/814 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Seizures may occur in up to 10% of the population. There is general consensus that adults with an unprovoked first seizure should have brain imaging with either CT or MRI primarily to identify any process that may be responsible for the seizure. Hence; under the light of above mentioned data, the present study was planned for assessing CT scans and their findings in seizures patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All the patients reporting with the history of seizure disorder were admitted to the emergency department and were treated accordingly. Complete past medical and clinical history of all the patients was obtained. In all the patients, EEG was done and findings of the EEG were correlated with the final diagnosis.&nbsp; In all the patients CT scan was done. Diagnosis was confirmed after correlating the clinical findings of all the patients with clinical history and microbiological investigation reports.&nbsp; All the results were analyzed by SPSS software .<strong>Results: </strong>Tuberculoma was found to be present among in 18 patients with partial seizures. Cerebral infarct was found to be present in 10 patients with partial seizures and among 15 patients with generalized seizures. Focal cerebral edema was found to be present in 10 patients with partial seizures. Diffuse cerebral edema was found to be present in 13 patients with generalized seizures. Brain tumour was found to be present among 6 patients with partial seizures. Calcifications were found to be present in 4 patients with partial seizures and 10 patients with generalized seizures. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT is sensitive for detection of neural lesions and is advocated in seizure patients. However; further studies are recommended.</p> Niranjan Bapu saheb Patil, Nitin Dashrath Wadhwani Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/814 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Prevalence of Abnormal Neurological Findings on MRI in Patients Presenting with Chronic Headache: A Clinical Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/815 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic headache is one of the common presenting complaints in patients reporting to general practitioner. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used to aid diagnosis but unlike CT it does not use ionizing radiation. Hence; we assessed the prevalence of abnormal neurological findings on MRI in patients presenting with chronic headache. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 100 patients reporting to the department with chief complaint of non-specific chronic headache were enrolled in the present study. Detailed demographic data and past medical history of all the patients was obtained. We also obtained complete history of present illness. MRI was done in all the patients under the hands of skilled and experienced radiologists. MRI findings were analyzed and were summarized in Microsoft excel sheet and were assessed by SPSS software. Chi- square test was used for assessment of level of significance. <strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of the patients of the present study was 40.8 years. Majority of the patients (49 percent) belonged to the age group of 30 to 50 years. 31 percent of the patients belonged to the age group of less than 30 years. 58 percent of the patients of the present study were males while the remaining 42 percent were females. Abnormal MRI findings were found to be present in 22 percent of the patient population. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Chronic headache is a common problem affecting significant proportion of patient populating. Significant proportion of patients with chronic headache has associated abnormal MRI findings.</p> Pradeep Shankarrao Patil, Niranjan Bapu saheb Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/815 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound Criteria for the Depiction of Benign or Malignant Thyroid Nodule by Using Tissue Diagnosis as Reference Standard https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/818 <p><strong>Background: </strong>High-resolution ultrasonography is a very sensitive imaging modality for examination of the thyroid gland and associated abnormalities. It is noninvasive, widely available, less expensive, and does not use any ionizing radiation. Further, real time ultrasound imaging helps to guide diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures (FNAC and Biopsy) in cases of thyroid disease. Objectives: To study the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound criteria’s for the depiction of benign or malignant thyroid nodule and their correlation with cytology or histopathology. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study included 50 patients who were referred for ultrasound with clinical suspicion of thyroid lesions. The ultrasound diagnosis was compared to the final diagnosis made on cytology or histopathology, and the ability of ultrasound in differentiating between a benign or malignant lesion was determined. <strong>Results: </strong>The ultrasound features favoring a malignant lesion included – solid consistency (Sn 92.3%; Sp48.6%; p=.009), hypoechoic echo-pattern (Sn 100%; Sp 54.5%: p=.004), micro-calcification (Sn 69.3%; Sp97.3%; p=.000), taller than wider shape (Sn 53.8%; Sp 89.1%; p=.001), ill-defined margins (Sn 61.5%;Sp 91.9%; p=.000) and internal vascularity (Sn 84.6%; Sp67.5%;p=.001). The ultrasound diagnosis was in agreement with the final diagnosis in 90% of the cases.The overall sensitivity, specificity and PPV of ultrasound in identifying a malignant lesion was 92.31%, 97.30%, and 92.31% respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound is an excellent non-invasive modality to evaluate thyroid nodules. It is a highly sensitive imaging modality for identifying and characterizing a lesion as benign or malignant.</p> Gagandeep Singh Sethi, Ritu Dhawan Galhotra, Parambir Sandhu, Kavita Saggar, Harkirat Singh Panach Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/818 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Patients with Thyroid Nodules Subjected for Ultrasonography https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/837 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hashimoto’s thyroiditis cannot be distinguished from those of multinodular goitre (MNG). Basically the thyroid is enlarged bilaterally with an uneven parenchymal pattern mainly showing decrease in the normal echogenicity. The ultrasound appearance of Hashimoto’s thytoiditis is that of a diffuse glandular enlargement with irregular lobulated margins. There is a generalised decrease in parenchymal reflectivity with a typical lobulated pattern due to highly reflective fibrous bands which separate the echo poor areas. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 cases of thyroid lesions diagnosed by ultrasound were included in the study. The ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography examination was done in the department of Radiology .These 80 cases which were found to have thyroid lesion on ultrasound were subjected to FNAC for confirmation of ultrasound finding and establishment of final diagnosis. <strong>Results:</strong> Study showed no vascularity (TYPE1) and (TYPE2) peripheral vascularity in 100% of benign nodules, none of the malignant nodules showed type 1 and 2 vascularity. 95.2% of benign nodules showed TYPE 3 vascularity and 4.76% of cases were malignant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>40% of the benign nodules showed intra nodular vascularity (TYPE4) and 60% of the cases were malignant.</p> Veeresh Hanchinal, Vishwanath S Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/837 Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasonography and Ultrasound Elastography in the Evaluation Thyroid Nodules https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/838 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thyroid nodules are commonly encountered, and thyroid cancers are among the commonest head and neck malignancies. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are extremely important in the definitive management of such patients.Ultrasonography is widely used first line of investigation in a patients suspected with thyroid mass which will help to differentiate diffuse thyroid diseases from nodular thyroid disease,recent advances in ultrasound technology and the introduction of Ultrasound Elastography have reportedly improved the accuracy in the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 cases of thyroid lesions diagnosed by ultrasound were included in the study. The ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography examination was done in the department of Radiology. These 80 cases which were found to have thyroid lesion on ultrasound were subjected to FNAC for confirmation of ultrasound finding and establishment of final diagnosis. <strong>Results:</strong> Our study showed 37.5% (30) of cases were diffuse thyroid disease and 62.5%(50) were nodular diseases. Out of 30 diffuse thyroid disease 15% were colloid goiter, 17.5% were hashimoto’s thyroiditis,5% were De Quervain’s thyroiditis. Our study also showed 100% of the hyperechoic nodules were benign, 77.77% hypoechoic nodules were benign and 22.22% hypoechoic nodules were malignant, 100% isoechoic nodules were benign and 100% of cystic nodules were benign. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound helps us to know clearly whether the lesion is solitary or multiple. It helps to clearly differentiate between solid and cystic lesions. The diffuse heterogenous echotexture of the gland with characteristic hypoechoic nodules clearly helps us in diagnosing Hashimotos thyroiditis. In addition, ultrasound is very useful to differentiate benign lesions from malignant thyroid lesions in most of the cases.</p> Veeresh Hanchinal, Vishwanath S Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/838 Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrum of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Color Doppler Findings in Peripheral Neuropathy https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/867 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Available diagnostic modalities for peripheral neuropathies e.g clinical assessment, electrodiagnostics, skin and nerve biopsy has certain limitations. The role of imaging is very limited. Purpose of this study is to evaluate findings in various peripheral neuropathies on ultrasonography and color Doppler. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Fifty adult patients of either sex with already diagnosed peripheral neuropathies were evaluated with high resolution ultrasound and color doppler of the relevant peripheral nerves and were compared with age and sex matched fifty healthy adult controls. <strong>Results: </strong>The study included patients with various peripheral neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, leprosy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, and peripheral nerve trauma). There was a significant increase in cross sectional area and change in echogenicity of median nerve at carpal tunnel in carpal tunnel syndrome (p&lt;0.05). Multiple nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy and leprosy patients showed increased cross sectional area and altered echogenicity as compared to controls (P &lt; 0.05). Patients with CIDP showed diffusely hyperechoic peripheral nerves. Sonography in peripheral nerve trauma showed significant hyperechogenicity and increased vascularity on doppler at site of trauma with precise localization. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>High resolution ultrasonography with color doppler showed greater extent of quantitative and qualitative alterations in peripheral nerves in various peripheral neuropathies.&nbsp; USG has the potential to complement other diagnostic investigations such as the nerve conduction study in polyneuropathies and can objectively measure nerve damage in some focal neuropathies. It is easily available and has the potential to become the first modality for screening or evaluation of peripheral neuropathies.</p> B.L. Kumawat, Manisha Sharma, C.M. Sharma, Aakanksha Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/867 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasound in Analysis of Vocal Cord Movements in Comparison with Laryngoscopy https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/868 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasound is a real time, dynamic imaging modality, useful in evaluating the movement of anatomical structures. It is a non-invasive and cheap imaging technique which can be utilized as a primary tool/ as an alternate tool to laryngoscopy in assessing the vocal cord movements in suspected cases of Vocal cord palsy. <strong>Aims &amp; objectives: </strong>To evaluate the utility of ultrasound in diagnosis of vocal cord movements in suspected cases of Vocal cord palsy. To compare the results with fibreoptic laryngoscopy findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A prospective comparative study done on 73 clinically suspected cases of vocal cord palsy. Vocal cord movements were assessed on ultrasound and results were compared with findings of flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 73 cases of clinically suspected vocal cord palsy, 42 cases were diagnosed with reduced / absent movement of vocal cords on ultrasound. In 3 cases ultrasound was not able to diagnose vocal cords palsy due to excessive laryngeal cartilage calcification. Unilateral vocal cord palsy was noted in 36 patients and bilateral vocal cord palsy in 9 patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound is reliable, non-invasive and cheap modality to asses vocal cord movements. Compared to fibreoptic laryngoscopy it has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing vocal cord palsy.</p> Nagaraj Murthy, Dimple Bhatia Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/868 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of CT Colonographyin the Evaluation of Colorectal Carcinoma https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/869 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Colorectal carcinoma is one of the commonest diseases in the adult. The advancement in the technology of CT scan has offered CT colonography which explores the colonic luminal pathology. The present study is done to evaluate the role of CT colonography in colorectal carcinoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The prospective study was carried out in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, over a period of 24 months. A total of 162 patients with colorectal carcinoma were selected and the disease characterization was studied using CT colonography. CT was carried out with GE (General Electric) Light speed VCT 64 slice MDCT machine. <strong>Results:</strong>The study group comprises of 106 male and 56 female patients. Highest numbers of cases (25%) were in the 6th decade of life. The commonest presenting complaints were bleeding per rectum and constipation. The rectum being the most frequently involved colonic segment in 38% of cases. Focal, asymmetric, marked (&gt;2 cm) wall thickening of colon with heterogeneous (mixed) attenuation pattern was seen commonly. Majority of the cases presented with periserosal fat invasion and internal iliac nodal group involvement. Liver is the commonest organ for distant metastasis. Four cases of malignant solitary sigmoid colon polyps and two cases of malignant rectal polyps were also identified. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT colonography is effective in characterisation of the malignant colorectal growth and identifying adenomatous polyps thus can be effectively used for the early detection, staging and screening of colorectal malignancy.</p> Sabari Arasu P, Arun Kumar S, Kaviyarasy T, Dhivya R, Sangeetha Devi P.S Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/869 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrocephalus - The Cross Sectional Radiological Study of Epidemiology, Classification and Causes https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/870 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study evaluating the efficacy of Computed Tomography in the diagnosis of Hydrocephalus was done on 74 cases. All the cases were studied on a Siemens Somatom ARC Computed Tomography system which is a modified Third generation machine. Factors of 130 KV and 70 MA were a constant for all cases and factors of 110 KV and 50 MA were used for infants. Demographic profile and radiological parameters were studied and tabulated on Microsoft excel file. <strong>Results: </strong>Tubercular meningitis was the commonest cause of hydrocephalus, with aqueduct, stenosis and tumours as the second important causes. All patients with possible hydrocephalus should have an initial, complete noncontrast CT scan with serial sections from vertex down through the upper cervical region to i. demonstrate size of all ventricles and cisterns to help rule out low lying tumors, the Chiari I and Chiari II malformation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT is a valuable tool with a very high diagnostic sensitivity and helps in early detection of hydrocephalus and its management.</p> Sandeep Ballal, Annitha Elavarasi Jayamohan, Suresh V, Ajit Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/870 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Radiological Study to Establish the Accuracy of MRCP over USG & CT in Diagnosing the Case of Obstructive Jaundice https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/871 <p><strong>Background: </strong>MRCP is a relatively new MR imaging technique that has revolutionized the imaging of biliary and pancreatic ducts. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted in the department of Radio Diagnosis, MGMC&amp;RI, for a period of 2 years. Thirty three patients of obstructive jaundice were included in the study. Ultrasonography followed by MRCP and then CT were done in all the patients. Three experienced radiologists reviewed the images separately and evaluated the cause and site of obstruction in these patients. The accuracy of each modality was analyzed statistically and correlation was made with the surgical findings or histopathological reports. <strong>Results:</strong> MRCP had an accuracy of 97% in detecting the cause of obstructive jaundice while CT &amp; USG had a accuracy of 82% &amp; 67% respectively. In diagnosing the site of obstruction MRCP had a accuracy of 100% while CT had 88% and USG 55%. The performance of MRCP when compared to CT and USG was statistically more significant (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and to know the cause, site and extent of the lesion MRCP being a non invasive, non ionizing procedure seems to be a better choice over other radiological procedures like USG, CT or ERCP.</p> Annitha Elavarasi Jayamohan, Antony Jean, Prakash Manikka Lakshmanan, Ajit Kumar Reddy Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/871 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Potential of First Trimester Ultrasonography in Detection of Fetal Congenital Structural Malformations- A Retrospective Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/912 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Early detection of malformation is tremendously improved with improvement in imaging technology. Yet in a developing country like India majority of pregnant women are not privileged to get timely diagnosis. Present study aimed to assess the potential of first trimester ultrasonography in detection of fetal congenital structural malformations. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All pregnant women had anomaly scan and women with fetal structural malformations were included. All patients were screened for congenital anomalies by 11-14 week ultrasound scan (first trimester anomaly scan) as part of routine prenatal care. Second trimester scan was conducted at 18 to 22 weeks gestation. The results of the first trimester anatomic survey were correlated with second trimester target scan to evaluate value of first trimester scan for early detection of anomalies. <strong>Results: </strong>It showed that out of 924 pregnant women 472 fall under high risk category and 452 under low risk category. Out of 924 women subjected to First Trimester Anomaly Scan 18 patients demonstrated some sort of congenital anomaly whereas Mid Gestation Ultrasound Scan revealed 9 women out of 892 who gave birth to babies with congenital anomaly. Overall only 3% pregnant women revealed congenital anomalies among babies. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is immense need for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the field of prenatal detection of congenital malformation. Earlier detection of fetal structural malformations would allow for earlier antenatal referral to a tertiary care facility and coordination of care among appropriate subspecialists. Focus and emphasis should aim at detection of malformation earlier than 12 weeks owing to the very unique and clear facts that first trimester detection leads to easy termination of pregnancy and lessening of women’s mental, physical, and psychological trauma.</p> G Rajesh, Waseem Akhtar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/912 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment ofGender Determination: By Morphometric Dimensions ofthe Maxillary Sinuses and Computed Tomography https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1014 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gender determination is considered to be an important step inidentification.For gender determination, anthropometric assessment is one of the main forensic assessments.<strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to investigate whether the morphometric dimensions of the maxillary sinuses can be used for gender determination.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 147 patients from the age group of 20-70 were included in the study.Out of which 85(57.8%) were males and 62(42.2%) were females, and who came for head and paranasalsinusComputed Tomography (CT) scan in the duration of one year from June 2018 to April 2019 and who had complaints of head ache and suspected sinus diseases but without any pathological radiographic findings or history of trauma and in whom the CT Scans were considered normal as per the consultant radiologists.To obtain the Multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT)images, an MDCT Siemens Somatom Definition AS 64 SLICE machine with a high-resolution bone algorithm, 233 mm field of view, 120 kV, 395 mA, scanning time of 6.5 seconds and slice thickness of 1.0 mm was used to obtain the axial images.<strong>Results:</strong>The proportion of correctly identified females with right and left sinus was 74.2 % and 77.4% while using right and left sinus 76.5% and78.8% of males were correctly identified respectively. The combined proportion of correctly identified gender was 75.5% using the right sinus and 78.2% using the left sinus.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>All the parameters were equally and statistically significant in gender determination in our study making imaging of maxillary sinus on CT scan as an important anatomical structure as an aid in forensic anthropology for criminal investigations. Based on the multiple regression analysis a formula is also derived to easily and conveniently calculate the gender based on the values of maxillary sinus obtained on CT scan.</p> Dilip Shah, Pradeep Shankarrao Patil, Prithviraj L. Jadhav, Rajat Agnihotri, Neelaja Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1014 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Grading Of Fatty Liver on Ultrasound and Its Correlation with Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1015 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To correlate the grades of fatty liver on ultrasound with degree of alterations in lipid profile and liver enzymes.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The prospective, analytical observational studywas conducted at a super specialtyhospital based in south Indiain 122 patients diagnosed with fatty liver.The subjects underwent ultrasonography, and lipid profile and liver enzyme tests as a part of clinical evaluation. Those with positive viral markers and on drugs altering the various biochemical parameters were excluded. A radiologist graded the fatty liver into 3 grades- grade I, II and III using the visual grading system. Statistical analyses were carried outto determine the correlation between the grades of fatty liver and alterations in lipid profile and liver enzymes.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of the 122 selected participants, 51 subjects were categorizedas grade I, 63 as grade II and 8 as grade III fatty liver. There was statistically significant variation in AST, ALT and GGT among different grades (P value &lt; 0.05).However, no significant variation in the BMI was found among patients with different grades of fatty liver.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and GGT concentrations with the increase in the grades of fatty liver by ultrasonography might be useful in predicting theinflammation and progression of the disease. This preliminary finding may be useful for developing a non-invasive method for early diagnosis and predicting the disease prognosis.</p> Anand K, Amulya Sundari V, Ashok Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1015 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Transrectal Ultrasound Prostate Volume Correlation with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Level in Patients with Prostatic Enlargement in Portharcourt https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1016 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prostatic enlargement is common among aging men which is associated elevation of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Prostatic enlargement could be due to benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis, or prostatic neoplasms.<strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study is to determine transrectal ultrasound prostate volume (TPV) correlation with serum prostate specific antigen level in patients with prostatic enlargement. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>One hundred and forty-three (143) males referred for ultrasound prostate evaluation with clinical diagnosis of prostatic enlargement that fulfill the study criteria were studied, using LOGIQ P6 PRO GE Healthcare machine fitted with 10MHz transrectal probe while the PSA level was estimated by Enzyme Immunoassay using DIAGNOSTIC INC PSA KIT.&nbsp; The blood samples were collected before the ultrasonic evaluation. The anterio-posterior, transverse and cranio-caudal diameters of the prostate gland were obtained and the prostate volume generated by the ultrasound machine.&nbsp; The data collected was analyzed using SPSS windows version 21.0 statistical software. Correlation between variables was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis.<strong>Results:</strong>The mean (Mean<u>+</u>SD) transrectalProstate Volume (TPV) and serum PSA levels were 66.13<u>+</u>30.43cm<sup>3 </sup>and 8.50<u>+</u>3.95ng/ml respectively. Pearson’s Correlation between TPV and Serum PSA level gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.809 (<em>pvalue</em> of 0.01). TPV and Serum PSA concentrations did not show correlation with Body Mass Index.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed a significant correlation between transrectal prostate volume and serum PSA concentration in patients with prostate enlargement.&nbsp; Therefore, TPV can be used as alternative method of estimating serum PSA concentration where direct measurement is absent.</p> Robinson Ebbi Donald Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1016 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Survival Analysis on the Risk Factors of Women’s with Cervical Cancer: A Case Study at Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1017 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death.&nbsp; The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the survival time of cervical cancer patients in Black Lion Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Black Lion Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Information on patients enrolled from December 2014 and had at least one follow-up until January 2017 time period in oncology center was used in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Log-Rank tests were used to compare the survival experience of different category of predictors. Semi-Parametric survival models were employed to examine the effect of explanatory variables on survival times.<strong>Results:</strong>A total of 518 cervical cancer patients in Black Lion Hospital were included in the study. Out of 518 cervical cancer patients, 49.04% were live in urban area and 50.96 % were live in rural area. The instantaneous risk of death for urban place of residence is 2.04 times the instantaneous risk of death for rural place of residence. The instantaneous risk of death for patients with hypertension has 2.15 greater risk of death than those patients without hypertension. Improved the survival of patients was an integral part of controlling cervical cancer.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>It has been found that 16% of the considered patients were died and the remaining 84% were censored at the end of the study. The median survival time of cervical cancer patients was 31months after diagnosis. The covariates those are more significant for cervical cancer patients are age, place of residence, hypertension, FIGO stage, histological type, and histological grade and HIV status.</p> Dessalew Sheferaw Yesuf, Tigist Jegnaw Lakew, Kasim Mohammed Yesuf Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1017 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Syrinx and Its Associations: A Retrospective Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1019 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Syrinxis described as a cavitary enlargement of the spinal cord. It is a common reason for neurosurgical referral. The aetiology of syrinx is multiple andit is associated with other brain and spinal cord conditions,while some are not associated with any other conditions. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We retrospectively collected data of cases diagnosed with syrinx in the department of radiodiagnosis in Rajarajeswari Medical college, Bangalore and studied the conditions associated with syrinx. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 37 cases were analysed. The spinal cord levelsmost commonly associated with syrinx were C5, C6, T1 and&nbsp; L1 vertebral levels. Arnold Chiari malformation type 1 was the most common condition associated with syrinx. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded from the present study that syrinx was more common in males than females with mean age of presentation of 36 years. The cervical spinal cord level was most commonly involved followed by thoracic and lumbar spinal cords. ACM type 1 was the most common associated condition. It becomes important for radiologist to look for syrinx in cases diagnosed with associated conditions, so that subtle and mild forms of syrinx are not missed and their growth or expansion in spinal cord be evaluated in follow up MRI studies.</p> Javaji Ravi Prasad, Harsha U, Nidhi B Raj Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1019 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Analysis of USG Findings in Dengue Fever as a Screening Modality https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1064 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue fever is a common public health issue in India, This study was conducted to asses value of ultrasound findings insero positive dengue cases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Retrospective study of 81 patients of various age groups of both male and female, serologically positive for dengue fever was conducted between April-2018 to Dec-2018. These patients were referred for ultrasound of abdomen .Abdominal sonography was performed with convex probe and high frequency variable linear probes after 4-6 hours fasting .Various ultrasound finding were analyzed. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 81 Patients Edematous gall bladder wall thickening/ edema seen in 71 (87.6%), most common findings, followed by ascites in 41 (50.6%) and Splenomegaly 17(20.9%), Hepatomegaly 15(18.5%) and pleural effusion 26 (32%).Ultrasound abdomen findings were normal in 10 (12.3%).In these Patients the platelet count&nbsp; was more than 150,000..Patients with platelets count up to 80000 showed&nbsp; GB wall thickening / wall edema,ascites, pleural effusion ,hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Pericardial effusion was not seen in our study. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound abdomen findings of GB wall thickenings,GB wall edema, Pleural effusion, Ascites, Splenomegaly &amp; Hepatomegaly strongly indicates diagnosis of dengue fever.These USG findings suggestive of severity of DF, which requirs proper managmeent.Subsequate USG examination helps to monitor the response to the treatment.</p> Vivek Gupta, Pranav Kumar Dave, R Mishra, M Jain, M Bapat, M Tilgam, A Patidar, J Verma, C Dave Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1064 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Utility of CT Scanin Patients with Deviated Nasal Septum https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1065 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nasal septum pathology is highly prevalent and septoplasty is a commonly developed surgery. The present study was conducted to assess utility of CT scan in patients with deviated nasal septum. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 82 patients reported to Department of Radio diagnosis L N medical college and J k Hospital Bhopalfor CT scan of PNS which were diagnosed with DNS. The CT scans were performed with GE 128 slice CT scanner machine. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 82 patients, males were 52 and females were 30. Age group 11-20 years had 32, 21-30 years had 20, 31-40 years had 15, 41-50 years had 12 and 51-60 years had 3 patients. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Common features in patients were headache in 41, nasal obstruction in 74, facial pain in 33, hyposmia in 27 and epistaxis in 11. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). There are six types of deviated nasal septum. Common type were type V in 21, type IV in 20, type VI in 16, type III in 9, type II in 6 and type I in 5. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT scan is useful tool in diagnosis of types of deviated nasal septum.</p> Vivek Gupta, Pranav Kumar Dave, M Tilgam, A Patidar, P Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1065 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Efficacy and Usefulness of Doppler in Patients with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1074 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the commonest complications of pregnancy. Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and small for gestational age (SGA) babies are pathological conditions strongly related to development and function of utero-placental and feto-placental circulations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of this new technology in patients with PIH and to evaluate the ability to predict the perinatal outcome.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study group comprised of 30 pregnant patients between 28 to 36 weeks of pregnancy clinically diagnosed as PIH. Control group comprised of 30 patients with 28 to 36 weeks with no clinically detectable hypertension. Ultrasound examination and Doppler study was done. Colour Doppler and spectral Doppler were done in the same sitting. The Umbilical artery reflecting the foetoplacental circulation, the uterine artery reflecting the uteroplacental circulation and foetal middle cerebral artery reflecting foetal responses and adaptation to changes in the intrauterine growth retardation were studied. The wave form of uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery was assessed with PHILIPS Envisor Doppler machine.<strong>Results:</strong>Normal S/D ratio was seen 56.7% (no=17), who had no REDV and no AEDV. They had 6.6% (no=2) still births, 6.6% (no=2) low birth weight babies and 43.3% (no= 13) had normal birth weight babies. In study group (PIH) of 30 patients, normal PI was seen in 36.7% patients and increased PI was seen in 63.3% patients. Of the patients with increased PI, 23.3% patients showed still-births, 23.3% patients had low birth babies.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Doppler velocimetry of the feto-placental and utero-placental circulation• has great potential in helping the managing obstetrician to identify the PIH patients with fetus at serious risk, which warrants urgent delivery by active intervention. It is helpful in distinguishing the serious patients from those where the approach can be a bit more conservative.</p> Naresh Kumar, Rajesh K Badhan, Munish Kumar Garg Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1074 Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Heart Disease Using Radionuclidemyocardial Perfusion Imaging https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1075 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The clinical utility of radiotracer study of heart in nuclear cardiology must be considered in the context of other cardiac diagnostic procedures. Accordingly.this study aimed is to determine the pattern of heart diseases detected by technetium Sestamibi (Tc<sup>99m</sup>).<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study included Fifty patients 34male (68%), 16female(32%), age mean <em>± </em>SD (57<em>± </em>10 years) and ranged from 39-82 years, were referred for MPI&nbsp; were presenting as known or suspected ischemic heart disease , it was done in Elnilen diagnostic center nuclear medicine department. Each patient underwent Tc<sup>99m </sup>-sestamibi studies, which were performed according to one day protocol.<strong>Results:</strong>Fifty patients&nbsp; were enrolled in the study, The&nbsp; results of this study revealed that&nbsp; EF , and weight as 54.16, 69.92 respectively<strong>,</strong>Distribution of Uptake and Viability of the patients, Poor Uptake(24%), Normal(40%), No (8%), Reduce (28%) and&nbsp; No (54%), Small(6%), Normal(40%)<strong>, </strong>SPECT images revealed ischemia of the apical, anteroapical, apicoseptal, and septal walls. Gated SPECT illustrated significant deterioration in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), in seven cases wall motion, and systolic wall thickening obtained with rest gated SPECT.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The MPI has an excellent value to detect coronary stenosis,The diagnosis of coronary artery disease remains common application of MPI, but it is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of acute MI, risk stratification after infarction, and assessment of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease.</p> Mohamed Yousef Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1075 Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Role of MRI in Assessment of Myelopathy https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1116 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Myelopathy is a disease of spinal cord which can lead to significant neurological morbidity. MRI because of better soft tissue differentiation, not only helps in determining the cause of myelopathy but also plays significant role in their management..<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was done on 80 patients in our institute between June&nbsp; 2017 to October 2018. All patients having complaints of pain in the back with sensory or motor dysfunction or both, having suspicion of myelopathy, referred to the department of Radio-diagnosis for MRI spine evaluation. MRI scan performed on 1.5 Tesla PHILIPS ACHIEVA machine, standard surface &amp; body coils were used for acquisition of images. <strong>Results: </strong>In this study out of 80 patients of myelopathy, 65% were due to cord compression and 35% were due to non compressive causes. Involvement of cervical spine was more common than the thoraco-lumbar spine. Most common condition associated with compression of the cord was Degenerative spine disease followed by Potts spine and trauma. Under the causes of Non compressive myelopathy- Myelitis was the most common cause, which was seen most in Isolated cases followed by associations with Multiple sclerosis and Neuromyelitisoptica. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI is the mainstay modality to diagnose spinal cord pathologies.Degenerative spine disease was the most common cause of compressive myelopathy and Myelitis was the most common cause of Non compressive myelopathy. Early diagnosis using MRI improves the prognosis of myelopathy.</p> Ashish Shukla, Prashant U Titare, Varsha Rote Kaginalkar, Ajay Vare, Anjali Pawar, Vandana Bhatt Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1116 Fri, 06 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Correlation of Radiographic Findings and Cartilage Abnormalities on MRI in Osteoarthritis Knee Patients https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1118 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widely prevalent disease worldwide and is a major public health problem that primarily affects the elderly.The present study was undertaken to define the radiographic findings of osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joint using Kellgren-Lawrence scores and to define cartilage abnormalities on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Present study was conducted on 50 patients presenting with knee pain and clinical suspicion of osteoarthritis. Antero-posterior radiographs of the knee were obtained in a weight-bearing extended position by using a standard radiographic technique. All radiographs were assigned scores by using the Kellgren-Lawrence scoring system.Cartilages alterations on MRI were assigned grades as follows: grade 0, normal; grade I, internal signal intensity alteration only; grade IIA, defect of cartilage of less than 50%; grade IIB, defect of cartilage of 50%–99%; grade IIIA, 100% defect of cartilage with no bone ulceration; or grade IIIB, 100% defect of cartilage with subjacent bone ulceration. Radiographic and MR imaging findings were compiled as per performa and subjected to analysis using appropriate statistical tests. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 26 patients of grade 0 K-L score, 6, 4, 6, 4, 4 and 2 patients had grade 0, grade 1, grade 2A, grade 2B, grade 3A and grade 3B Cartilage abnormality (On MRI) respectively. Among 8 patients of grade 1 K-L score, 2, 2, 2 and 2 patients had grade 0, grade 2A, grade 2B and grade 3A Cartilage abnormality (On MRI) respectively. Among 14 patients of grade 2 K-L score, 1, 4, 4 and 5 patients had grade 2A, 2B, 3A and grade 3B Cartilage abnormality (On MRI) respectively. Among 2 patients of grade 3 K-L score, both of these had grade 3B Cartilage abnormality (On MRI). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI plays an important role in imaging the bony and soft tissues of knee as a whole organ, thereby helping in better management and outcome of the disease.</p> Girish Sahni, Sanjeev Kumar, Munish Kumar Garg, Ayush Kumar Jain Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1118 Sat, 07 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Recent Advances in Imaging and Pathological Techniques for Diagnosing Tubercular Lymphadenitis(EPTB) In Children and Adolescents Up To 14 Years https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1190 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), there is still a diagnostic challenge due to its similarity with other pathological conditions. Recent imaging techniques are very helpful in approaching the diagnosis of nodal tuberculosis. Further confirmation of diagnosis is done by staining for acid fast bacilli, fine needle aspiration cytology, and excisional biopsy &amp; by histo-pathological analysis. High Resolution sonography contributesin diagnosis of various types of lymph nodes, and endobronchial ultrasound mainly useful for mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.Recent advances like C.T. scan, MRI and PET-CT demonstrates site,pattern ,and extent of disease .These imaging modalities can better differentiates between benign from malignant causes .The Ultrasound&nbsp; /C.T guided FNAC/ Biopsy further plays an important role in confirmation of diagnosis with staining /culture /histo-pathological analysis.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is also important to differentiate tuberculosis from non-tubercular mycobacterial lymphadenitis. HIV co-infection also plays important role in further increase the cases of lymphadenitis.</p> Vijay Kulshrestha Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1190 Thu, 26 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 CT Findings in Adult Headache in Sub-Saharan Africa https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1194 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To determine CT findings in adult headache in sub-Saharan Africa. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>a prospective study of six months duration carried out at the military hospital of Abidjan. It included all patients who underwent a brain CT for headache. The CT scans were performed in spontaneous contrast, supplemented according to the context by another complementary acquisition after injection of iodinated contrast medium. The epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from the patients’ examination interview.<strong>Results:</strong>The total number of our patients was 129. There was a predominance with 52% (n = 67) of women against 48% men (n = 62). The average age was 44 years. The associated clinical symptoms were: motor deficit (30.2%) and fever (11%). In 58.8% of cases there were no associated signs. In 17 cases there was a notion of combined hormonal taking, 20 cases of hypertension and 10 cases of trauma. CT revealed in 46.2% of cases a cause for headache. These etiologies were dominated by stroke (24%), followed by sinusitis (9.3%), abscesses and encephalitis (7.8%) and trauma (5.4%).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>In sub-Saharan Africa headache is frequently explored in neuroradiology. This is a serious symptom for which CT revealed in 46.2% of cases an underlying cause dominated by decreasing order of frequency: stroke, sinusitis and brain abscess.</p> Anhum Nicaise Konan, Lynda Gui-Bilé, Bi Tah Epiphane Kouai, Yao Anselme Aristide N'guessan, N'goran Kouamé Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1194 Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Application of DWI in Evaluating Parenchymal Lesions ofCerebral Venous Thrombosis https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1195 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially life-threatening emergency. It is a cause of stroke with inconspicuous patho physiological properties that differ from arterial stroke. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) helps in differentiating arterial and venous strokes. <strong>Objectives:</strong>To study the pattern of diffusion weighted imaging with its evolution over time in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Fiftypatientswith clinical CVT underwent DWI, conventional MRI and MRV in Department of Radiology, JJM Medical College, Davangere. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured inall of the abnormal lesions seen on DWI.<strong>Results:</strong>Four differentDWI patterns wereobserved: 1)Hemorrhagicinfarcts associated with heterogeneous signal intensity.2)Non-hemorrhagicinfarctsdemonstrating high signal intensities whichwereconfirmedwithADCvalues atinitialandfollowupstudies. 3) No DWI changes with increased ADC values 4) Intraparenchymal hemorrhage showing decreased signal intensity on DWI with increased ADC values.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>ThecurrentstudysuggeststhatDWIwithADCvaluescanbeusedto differentiate between vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema for tissue viability, early detection of ischemia andalso helps in assessing the severity and prognosis of parenchymal changes in patients with CVT.</p> Rajkeerthi N, Navin A Patil, Jeevika M U, Sahana C M, Dain Davis Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1195 Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Multidetector Computed Tomography in Hepatic Artery Variation – A Cross-Sectional Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1196 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hepatobiliary surgery requires a detailed preoperative evaluation of vascular anatomy through a noninvasive modality. The purpose of our study was to determine the anatomical variation in the hepatic arteries and classify them according to Michels classification in patients who underwent abdominal angiography for various reasons. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective study done in a tertiary care hospital in northern India which included 500 consecutive patients undergoing triple-phase abdomen CT for various abdominal indications. Plain CT followed by triple-phase CT angiography of the abdomen was performed. The origin and branches of the hepatic artery were examined in detail and classified according to Michels classification. The unnamed variants and other abnormal findings were mentioned separately.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 500 patients, there were 268 males and 234 females. Three hundred and eleven out of the 500 patients (62.2%) had the classic arterial anatomy identified at CT angiography.&nbsp; The most common variant identified was Michels type V (9%). The second most common variant identified was Michels type III (6.4%). Ninety-seven (19.4%) had a single arterial aberration, and 25 patients (5%) showed more than one arterial variant. There was a trifurcation pattern identified in 20 patients (4%). Different combinations of accessory and replaced hepatic arteries were identified in 26 patients (5.2%).Both Males and females had type 5 as the most common variation in our study followed by type 3.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study shows a high prevalence of the hepatic arterial variation in our population (37.8 %).</p> Karthik Marpalli Vasudeva Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1196 Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Sonological Markers for Assessment of Dengue Fever with Serological Correlation https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1270 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue, a viral infection has become a major public health problem with epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Ultrasound (US) is used as screening modality in all patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain. The study was to establish the Ultrasound features of dengue fever and correlate Ultrasound findings with platelet counts in serologically positive cases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study of 104 patients carried out during dengue epidemic in 2015 in Delhi and NCR. Patients of all age groups were included in the study. Ultrasound of abdomen and chest was performed on 3- 7<sup>th</sup> day of fever and sonographic features were recorded.<strong>Results:</strong>Mean age of patients was 29.9 ± 15 years with 48 (47 %) males and 56 (53 %) females. Maximum number of patients belonged to age group of 21-30 years (32%). The Gall bladder (GB) wall thickening was noted in majority 81 (77.8 %) of the study subjects followed by Ascites in 64 (62.7%), bilateral pleural effusion 32 (31.3 %), unilateral pleural effusion 24 (23.5 %), Splenomegaly in 16 (15.0%) subjects and Hepatomegaly in 10 (9.8%).The sonographic abnormalities including Gall bladder wall thickening, ascites, pleural effusion, Splenomegaly, Hepatomegaly were significantly higher in study subjects with decreased platelet count. Although Gall Bladder wall thickening was the commonest finding in 77.8 % subjects, Ascites was the commonest finding in 48 (82.7%) study subjects with platelet count between 0-50000 indicating that ascites was a better prognostic indicator than Gall bladder thickening in cases of dengue fever.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Its rapidity, ready and widespread availability not only makes Ultrasound as a primary modality of diagnosing dengue fever before the results of serological tests are available, it can also be used as mainstay investigation in epidemic regions for recognizing critically ill patients requiring early and prompt management.</p> Ashish Kumar Shukla, Sagar Tomar, Ashok Kumar, P.K Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1270 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Breast Lump Mammographic and Sonomammographic Findings with Histopathological Diagnosis https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1271 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Indian women. Early detection, diagnosis, and treatment is possible by screening women with breast lumps. Most commonly used screening methods are Mammography and Sonomammography, with histopathological confirmation done in suspected cases. The aim of this research was to find out the most accurate method of screening for cancer in females presenting with breast lumps.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We enrolled 53 females with age over 35 years presenting with palpable breast lump. All patients were subjected to Mammography, Sonomammography, and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Findings of mammography and sonomammograohy were correlated with Fine needle aspiration cytology (as gold standard for cancer diagnosis) to find out the most sensitive, specific and accurate screening methodology.<strong>Results:</strong>The sensitivity and specificity for cancer diagnosis by mammography was 77% and 98% respectively, as compared to 56% and 97% for sonomammography. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods combined was 100% and 97% respectively. In younger patients with mammographically dense breasts, sonomammography performs better for detection and diagnosis.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mammography and Sonomammography are individually effective diagnostic modalities for detection of breast cancer. Detection of breast carcinoma is higher by mammography in comparison to Sonomammography; however, the accuracy significantly improves when both methods are combined. Sonomammography is better in comparison to mammography for detecting lesions in mammographically dense breast.</p> Goswami KG, Bansal A, Agrawal SK, Agarwal B, Thakral RK, Sharma AC Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1271 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of CT in Evaluation of Nontraumatic Acute Abdomen https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1272 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The term ‘Acute Abdomen’ refers to any clinical condition characterised by severe abdominal pain that develops over a period of hours. For diagnosing the cause of ‘acute abdomen’, CT is superior to clinical evaluation, basic laboratory investigations and inconclusive imaging examination regardless of duration of signs and symptoms. Aim and Objectives:-To establish the role of CT in diagnosis of aetiology of acute abdominal pain &amp; to quantify the degree to which CT and clinical findings correlate.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>50 patients of suspected acute abdomen; established by clinical findings and subsequent course referred to department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Muzaffarnagar Medical College and Hospital, Muzaffarnagar, for CT scan during the period of 14th NOV 2017 to 31st march 2019, comprised the material for the present study which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and do not come under the ambit of exclusion criteria. The usual CT scan protocol comprised of contiguous 5mm transaxial sections from dome of diaphragm to pubic symphysis after administration of oral and intravenous contrast media. Serial CT sections of abdomen was obtained in each case using spiral CT scanner Siemens Somatom Emotions 16 slice.<strong>Results:</strong>The collective data was analysed for CT findings of non-traumatic group which presented clinically as acute abdomen. The total number of cases analysed was 50.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Computed tomography is an important modality in the evaluation of acute abdomen for grading the severity of disease.</p> Sunil Kumar Agrawal, Amit Kumar Singh, Akhil Kumar Gupta, Bindu Agrawal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1272 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adrenal Sono-Volumetry in ‘Stressed’ Neonates https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1273 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Neonates are exposed to multiple stressors. Adrenals, important organs of stress response, are likely to mirror the stress, neonate is exposed to. This study was done to ascertain if adrenal sonovolumetry reliably assesses presence of stressors in neonates.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A prospective case-control study was done in a tertiary hospital including all neonates admitted to NICU in study period and healthy full term newborns as controls. Both cases and controls underwent adrenal sonography.&nbsp; Adrenal Volumes were calculated as&nbsp; product of area in coronal and length in perpendicular plane. The volume was divided by neonatal weight to calculate Adrenal volume-index(VI). Mean VI’s of cases and controls were compared for any significant difference.<strong>Results:</strong>Forty cases including 25 preterm and 15 term neonates and 80 controls were included in the study.&nbsp; There was negative correlation between neonatal weight and adrenal size among preterm neonates. Mean adrenal VI of cases were significantly higher than controls for both preterm and term cases. Preterm neonates less than 32 weeks at birth had significantly higher adrenal VI than preterm cases more than 32 weeks at birth.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sono-volumetry of adrenals can be used as marker of stress in neonates irrespective of term or preterm birth.</p> S Meghana, Upendra Kumar Joish, Harikiran Reddy, Avi Vinod Jain, BK Anusha Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1273 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Sjogren’s syndrome https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1274 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Primary Sjögren’s syndrome is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by hypofunction of salivary and lacrimal glands and possible multi-organ system manifestations. Over the past 15 years, three sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed, but none has included salivary gland ultrasonography. However, recent studies support its role in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. <strong>Aim:</strong>The aim of the present study was to determine the role of ultrasound in diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome and to assign scoring based on texture morphology of parotid gland seen on ultrasound in patients.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In this study,30 patients of age between 20-60 years with Sjögren’s syndrome referred for ultrasonography of neck to the department of radiodiagnosis, PDU Medical college and Civil hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, over a period of 1.5 years from 01/05/2018 to 01/11/2019 are included. <strong>Results: </strong>SGUS was performed by the same investigator, an experienced radiologist, using a real-time scanner (LogiqP9; GE Healthcare) with a 12-MHz linear array transducer. Both the parotid and submandibular glands were scanned and echostructure of each gland was graded on a scale of 1 to 4.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study contributes to the conclusion that ultrasonography can be used as a primary modality of imaging to early diagnose Sjögren syndrome in a non- invasive way.</p> Hiral Hapani, Anjana V. Trivedi, Khushali Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1274 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonography of Cervical Lymph Nodes https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1275 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the evaluation of cervical lymph nodes. Gray-scale ultrasonography and color and power Doppler ultrasonography are commonly used in current practice.<strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the efficacy of ultrasound in differentiating between benign and metastatic group of cervical lymph nodes.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In this study, 160 patients age between 15 and 60 years with cervical lymphadenopathy referred for ultrasonography of neck to the Department of Radio diagnosis, P D U Medical College, over a period of 1 Year from December 2017 - December 2018 are included in this study. All scans carried out on high frequency linear transducer on Philips IU 22 ultrasound machine.<strong>Results: </strong>Lymph node with oval shape ([S/L] &lt; 0.5) echogenic hilum, homogenous echotexture, and hilar vascularity were considered as significant parameters in detecting non-neoplastic (reactive) lymph nodes, which showed matting with soft tissue edema. Nodes which were round shape (S/L ≥ 0.5), absent hilum, heterogeneous echotexture, hilar, capsular vessels, and mixed vascularity were considered as significant parameters in detecting neoplastic (malignant) lymph nodes.<strong>Conclusion:</strong>The sonographic appearances of normal nodes differ from those of abnormal ones. Sonographic features that help to identify abnormal nodes include shape (round), absent hilum, intranodal necrosis, reticulation, calcification, matting, soft-tissue edema, and peripheral vascularity.</p> Jagruti Kalola, Maulik Jethva, Raj Bhesdadiya Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1275 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of CT in detection of Gall Bladder lesions – A Radiographic Study https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1276 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the commonest malignancy of the biliary tree. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of CT scan in detection of gall bladder lesions.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 76 patients of both genders. CT Scan was performed in all patients.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 76 patients, males were 42 and females were 34. Common lesions were gall bladder CA in 20, distal cholangio CA in 20, GB mass in 24 and cholelithiasis in 12. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). The sensitivity of CT was 98% and specificity was 96%.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that CT is useful in detection of gall bladder lesions.</p> Anil Kumar Bansal, Anil Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1276 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Ultrasound in the Detection of Fractures in Comparison with the Conventional Radiography https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1278 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Given the potential advantages of ultrasonography in remote and resource-poor settings, the validation of this tool in point-of-care fracture diagnosis could potentially allow timely and appropriate management of fractures in the community. Present study was performed with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in diagnosing the presence or absence of fractures in clinically suspected patients in comparison with the conventional radiography.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Sixty patients of any age group and either sex coming to emergency wing or orthopaedic outdoor or indoor and other departments at our institution with clinically suspected fractures were included for the study. Each patient was subjected to detailed history, local examination, and conventional radiography with appropriate views. This was followed by ultrasonography using real time scanner with a high frequency linear transducer in both longitudinal and transverse planes. The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared to see their relative efficacy in the detection of fractures. <strong>Results: </strong>Both conventional radiography and ultrasonograhy detected fractures in 25 (62.5%) cases involving long bones and both modalities ruled out bony fractures in 15 (37.5%) cases (Table 1). In case of flat bone fractures, conventional radiography detected fractures in 5 (41.6%) cases and was negative in rest 7 (58.3%) cases, whereas USG detected fractures in 9 (75%) cases and was negative in 3 (25%) cases. Overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values of CR against USG in this present study came out to be 81.41%, 100%, 100%, 74.25% and 89.2%, respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasonographic examination might act as a substitute for radiography in detection of bony fractures, thus saving the patient from radiation exposure.</p> Deepak Tolia Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1278 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Prospective Study of Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1279 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are important cause of morbidity and mortality world- wide owing to their life threatening complications. Today with the availability of excellent antimicrobials, many of these disorders are potentially treatable, making early recognition imperative. MRI has revolutionised the manner in which diagnosis is made. Aims:&nbsp; Our aim was to study the characteristic MRI imaging features of various CNS infections and corelate them clinically. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Total 50 (of all age groups) patients who were clinically suspected of CNS infections were subjected to MRI examination using MAGNETOM ESSENZA SIEMENS operating at 1.5 Tesla. MRI findings were analysed&amp;corelated clinically. <strong>Results &amp; </strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>CNS infections were almost equally distributed among males and females and were mostly found in paediatric population. Neurocysticercosis and Tuberculosis were the two most common CNS Infections diagnosed. Basilar meningitis is highly suggestive of tuberculosis.</p> Sunil Kumar Agrawal, Shubhangi Gupta, Ila Pahwa, Sangita Singhal, Bindu Agrawal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1279 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of High Resolution Ultrasonography(USG) In Ocular Pathologies https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1280 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasound is a noninvasive procedure to diagnose ocular pathologies. It can be used to differentiate ocular and extraocular diseases, to evaluate orbital trauma and to localize intraocular foreign body. It is of great help where ophthalmoscopy is impossible mainly due to opacification of transparent media. Aim &amp; Objective: Study was to evaluate the role of USG in ocular diseases &amp; correlate our finding with ophthalmoscopy (clinical) findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Study was done on 50 patients in Radiology department of Muzaffarnagar medical college, Muzaffarnagar, U.P. Examination was done using Ultrasonography (USG) machine- Philips 650 Clear vue with 5 - 12 MHz linear probe. <strong>Results: </strong>In our study&nbsp; ocular pathologies (includes extraocular) were most commonly seen between 6th&nbsp; to 7th&nbsp; decade (44%) with&nbsp; female predominance (64 %).Left eye (52%) showed slightly predominence&nbsp; however 14% of cases having bilateral involvement. Commonest ocular pathology was retinal detachment &amp; cataract with equal weightage (20.5 %) followed by vitreous hemorrhage (15.3 %). Out of 11` extraocular cases, 4 were cysticercosis(36.3%) in our study. Out of 50 cases, 39 cases were diagnosed ocular pathologies &amp; 11 cases were diagnosed extraocular pathologies. Out of them 47 were diagnosed correctly on USG while only 16 cases were diagnosed correctly by ophthalmic examination. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>USG is useful in diagnosing ocular conditions .USG had better sensitivity and specificity for both intraocular and extraocular pathologies than ophthalmoscope due to opaque media . Moreover, ultrasonography provide a cost-effective, radiation free, non-invasive technique in patients with ocular pathologies.</p> Bindu Agrawal, Ruchi Balyan, Sunil Kumar Agrawal, Suman Bhartiya Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1280 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 New Generation Contrast Media and Renal Saftey https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1281 <p><strong>Background: </strong>With the advancement in radiological interventions and diagnostic imaging iodinated contrast has an important role to play. Research and advancement in contrast media safety makes this pharmaceutical agent safe to use in daily practice. Our study is done to assess the safety of present generation iodinated contrast media over the kidneys in patients with heterogenous clinical setting undergoing contrast enhanced CT with serum creatinine and e-GFR as a tool for renal function assessment. The study concludes low-osmolar non – ionic contrast is safe in general population; however, we would advise judicious use of intravenous low-osmolar non-ionic contrast in patients with associated comorbid conditions due to mild but insignificant rise in serum creatinine values.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Prospective study done with 158 patients undergone computed tomography with Low-osmolar non-ionic iodinated contrast media. Sr,creatinine and eGFR are obtained.<strong>Results:</strong>Age of the patient does not have direct influence on percentage of creatinine variation where ascormorbidconditions of the patient has.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Incidence of contrast induced nephropathy among the general population is negligible however judicious use of contrast media is necessary in patients with cormorbid conditions.</p> Arun Kumar S, Jayaprakash N, Prasad Hegde Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1281 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometric Analysis of Corpus Callosum in Patients with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1284 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Corpus callosum (CC)- largest white matter structure in brain and has an important role in communicating both cerebral hemispheres. Damage to CC during development has been associated with poor neurological outcome, poor neuropsychological performance, cognitive and communication developmental delays.Aim and Objectives: Morphometric analysis of Corpus Callosum (CC) in HIE patients in comparison with CC of normal subjects by using MRI.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Retrospective comparative study of 40 patients-Ages &lt; 2 year. Cases(20patients)-diagnosed cases of&nbsp; HIE on MRI. Controls (20patients)-proven to be normal on MRI. Two groups- ≤1 year and 1- 2 year age-group. Study was done on T1-mid-sagittal sections of brain obtained on PHILIPS-Achieva 1.5-Tesla-MRI.Statistical Data analysis of different measurements was done using‘t’ test and ‘p’ values.&nbsp; <strong>Results&amp;</strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Variables were affected in order of Splenium&gt;Body&gt;Genu &gt;Isthmus in ≤1year age-group and Genu&gt;Splenium&gt;Body&gt;Isthmus in &gt;1year age-group when mean value of different variables were compared between cases and controls. In HIE cases, thickest part was Genu and thinnest part was Isthmus.No statistically significant difference was found between males and females. This is one of the few studies providing biometric comparison between the CC of HIE patients and their controls. Damage to the CC during development is associated with poor neurological and neuropsychological performance, cognitive and communication developmental delays. This study analyzes the pattern of involvement of different variables of CC in HIE patients and helps in predicting the poor neurological outcome and developmental delays.</p> Jain Avi Vinod, Jeevika M.V, Meghana S, Moinuddin Adil Mulla, Hita Shivayogi, Anusha BK Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1284 Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000