Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research (AJMRR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in radiology and medical imaging. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2347-338X | Print ISSN: 2347-3371</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2347-3371 High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Evaluation of Suspected Interstitial Lung Disease Cases. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a large group of diseases that causes scarring of lung tissue. Diagnosis of exact etiology of ILD is usually by clinico-radiologic-pathologic correlation. HRCT of Lung plays a crucial role in diagnosis of etiology of ILD &amp; determining prognosis. <strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the HRCT findings in clinically suspected cases of ILD and to compare the role of HRCT with Chest X ray in diagnosis of ILD. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was conducted among 50 consecutive, consenting patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease. History and clinical details of all study participants were noted and first examined with chest radiography and then exposed to HRCT. The data thus collected was properly coded and entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using the software SPSS version 16.0. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study population was 48.84 years (SD=14.46).60% of the study participants were males. Specific diagnoses could be made in 25.7% of abnormal case with radiograph and clinical correlation and in 57% with HRCT and clinical correlation. Most common pattern identified was reticular (60%) and most common anatomical area of involvement identified was lower lobe (54.28%). Most common etiology among the cases was idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (20%) followed by sarcoidosis (11.4%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis and Hypersensitivity pneumonitis along with non specific type were the most frequent types of ILD identified in the study. The current study demonstrates a better diagnostic efficacy for HRCT when compared to chest X ray in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease.</p> Sunil M Mishal Mohammed Y Thiruvarul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 1 01 04 Evaluation of Patients with Blunt Abdominal Injuries by Ultrasonography and Multidetector Computed Tomography. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) usually occurs due to road traffic accidents (RTA), fall from heights or during sports. Prevalence of intraabdominal injury varies widely, ranging from 7.7% to 65%. The aim of study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (USG) &amp; multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in identifying intra abdominal injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and to compare-provide information that could accurately determine choice of management (non-operative vs operative). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was a prospective study; total 50 patients were included in this study. This study was conducted at Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Chalmeda AnandRao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimagar. The study period was during from October 2015 to September 2017. USG examinations were performed with a curvilinear and linear probe on GE Voluson S6&amp; Philips Envisor C HD. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 38 cases were positive for intra abdominal injury and 12 cases were negative for intra abdominal injury. 30 patients underwent surgery and the remaining cases were managed conservatively. Most of the patients admitted to this hospital were victims of vehicular accidents. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) as accounting for 33 cases (66%) of the blunt abdominal trauma. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concluded that MDCT is the superior diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma. USG can be a valuable initial investigation; however, USG can miss crucial injuries and may lead to inappropriate management in some patients.</p> Ravi Kiran G Harshavardhan NS Anil U Madurwar Santhosh D ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 1 05 08 Role of Ultrasonography in the Era of 3 Tesla MRCP: A Comparative Study in Obstructive Jaundice. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Biliary obstruction is caused by various diseases. In a suspected case of biliary obstruction with clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of obstructive jaundice, the main aim of radiologist is to confirm the presence of obstruction identify its location, extent and probable cause. 3D MRCP virtually demonstrates anatomy of the biliary and pancreatic ducts in 3 Tesla MRI system. Ultrasonography still remains the first imaging modality for obstructive jaundice. The aim of the study was to&nbsp; evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of USG vs. MRCP with 3 Tesla MRI in patients of obstructive jaundice. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>After institutional ethical committee approval, 90 patients confirmed to have features of obstructive jaundice referred for Ultrasonography and MRCP and subsequently underwent ERCP / Surgery were evaluated. It was a Prospective correlational study. Inclusion Criteria were patients with clinical diagnosis of obstructive jaundice referred for Ultrasonography and MRCP and subsequently underwent ERCP / Surgery. Exclusion Criteria were patients non compatible for MRI and other modalities (ERCP), Patients in whom histological diagnosis was not available, Patients unwilling for MRCP / ERCP / Surgery. <strong>Results:</strong> Accuracy of ultrasound was 75 % and MRCP 98 % in detection and delineation of obstructive biliary pathologies. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for choledocholithiasis is 80%, 100% &amp; 80% respectively for Ultrasonography and 100% for MRCP. The Sensitivity and Specificity for Ultrasonography was 71% and 100% in detection of biliary obstruction secondary to biliary strictures and for MRCP, the sensitivity and specificity was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity for malignant pathologies in this study was 73 % and 100% respectively on Ultrasonography, while that on MRCP was 93.3% and 100% respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasonography as a screening modality is useful to confirm or exclude biliary dilatation and to choose patients for MRCP examination. MRCP is an important non-invasive imaging investigation in the pre-operative evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice. Magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography, combines the advantages of projectional imaging with those of cross-sectional imaging, is an established diagnostic technique. Technical advances over the past decade, including the refinement of 3.0-T imaging capabilities, have added to the usefulness of this noninvasive method. Though MRCP can be considered as the gold standard for diagnostic non-invasive evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary system in cases of obstructive jaundice, ultrasound will always remain the first choice.</p> Vikram Patil Sudha Kiran Das Dr Devkant Rudresh Hiremath Sachin Shetty Vinay Raj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 1 09 15 MRI Evaluation of Low Back Ache Cases with Radiologic Evidence of Degenerative Lumbar Spine <p><strong>Background: </strong>Back pain is one of the leading cause of occupational disability and limiting factor in performing activities of daily living.Identifying the exact cause of low back ache is a tedious task, but is critical in planning the management of the condition. Magnetic resonance imaging is regarded as the most sensitive method in pointing out the exact pathology. <strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the MRI findings in patients with low back ache with radiologic evidence of degenerative lumbar spine. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was conducted among 80 patients who were sent for MRI evaluation, from Orthopedics and General Medicine department, with low back ache and radiographic evidence of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. MRI was taken in all study subjects and the findings were noted. The data thus collected was properly coded and entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using the software SPSS version 16.0. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study population was 51.46 years (SD=12.58 years and majority (73.75%) were males. Most common associated clinical findings was radicular pain syndrome (36.25%) followed by&nbsp; weakness of lower limbs(18.75%).MRI demonstrated following findings: dehydrative changes(86.25%), reduction in disc space(67%), disc protrusion(36.25%), disc extrusion(6%), disc bulge(56%), spondylolisthesis (18.75%),spinal stenosis(7.5%),Schmorl’s nodes(4%), hemangioma (2.5%) and&nbsp; vertebral body destruction (1.25%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dehydrative changes and reduction of disc space were the most common MRI findings. Disc protrusion, disc extrusion as well was disc bulge was most commonly seen at L4-L5 level while spondylolisthesis was common at L5-S1 level.</p> Mishal Mohammed Sunil M Y Thiruvarul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 1 16 19 Analytical Study of Temporal Bone Pathologies and Anatomical Variations on High Resolution CT. <p><strong>Background: </strong>High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), a modification of routine CT, owing to its ability to delineate intricate osseous anatomy and admirable topographic visualization, is widely used for accurate assessment of temporal bone pathologies prior to surgical exploration. The present study was undertaken to evaluate temporal bone in diseased ears by HRCT and its importance in patient management. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This prospective study was conducted in the department of Radiodiagnosis of a large tertiary care hospital in Northern India. A total of 50 patients with clinically proven middle ear disease with hearing loss or chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled into this study. All cases were evaluated with 128 slice CT scanner (Philips Medical systems, Cleveland, USA). <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of patients in our study was 29.52 ± 21.48 years. Maximum patients with temporal bone pathologies had either sclerosed or under-pneumatized mastoids. Limited numbers of anatomical variations were noted with Korner's septum being the most common variation (7.14 %). Others variations included high jugular bulb (2.86 %), facial nerve dehiscence (2.86 %), labyrinthine fistula (2.86 %) and foramen tympanicum (1.43 %). Otomastoiditis was the most frequently encountered pathological condition in the study population (72.86 %), followed by cholesteatoma (32.86 %). Congenital malformations were seen in 10 cases (14.29%) with type I incomplete partition (5.71%) being the most common malformation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>HRCT of temporal bone is useful in identifying common ear pathologies and anatomical variations prior to the surgery and thereby planning appropriate surgical approach.</p> Lalit Kumar Ankur Malhotra Rajul Rastogi Vijai Pratap ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 1 20 25 Role of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Myocysticercosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Myocysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by encysted larvae of taenia solium. The infection occurs due to ingestion of taenia eggs in raw or undercooked pork, contaminated water or vegetables which are disseminated by hematogenous route to various tissues of the human body. Myocysticercosis occurs due to muscular involvement by the parasite and is more common in population having poor access to sanitation facilities.&nbsp; Ultrasonography is a convenient, easily accessible and cost effective modality which can be used to demonstrate the various appearances of myocysticercosis. FNAC is diagnostic and helpful in identifying the parasite and its body parts. <strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> To evaluate the role of ultrasonogaphy in the diagnosis of myocysticercosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in the Radiology department of Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad. We included 50 pathologically confirmed cases of myocysticercosis who had undergone ultrasound evaluation by linear ultrasound probe 9L4 of Siemens Acuson S2000 ultrasound machine <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 50 patients that were enrolled in our study , the most common appearance was of well defined cystic lesion of variable size with an&nbsp; eccentric, echogenic scolex. Other appearances include ill defined cystic lesion with or without scolex or a completely calcified myocysticercosis. Most common location was found to be anterior abdominal wall followed by lower extremities, upper extremities and facial muscles subsequently. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that ultrasound is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of mycocysticercosis with characteristic diagnostic appearances.</p> Mohini Chaudhary Deepak Singla Shruti Chandak Ashutosh Kumar Arjit Agarwal Vijai Pratap ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-17 2019-03-17 7 1 26 28 Role of Assessing Cervical Length by Transvaginal Ultrasound before Induction of Labour <p><strong>Background: </strong>Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical length, measured by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), to predict successful induction of labor at term and association of cervical length measurements with induction of labor. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study design was used to collect data was collected from 50 women between 36-40 weeks of gestation who presented at the study institute. Cervical length was measured using transvaginal ultrasound and the association of cervical length with induction of labour was examined. A p value &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant. <strong>Results:</strong> Twenty one (51.21%, 95% CI: 36.49, 65.74) of 41 pregnant women had successful induction of labour. The mean cervical length of the 41 study participants was 20.19 ± 5.87 (range 10 to 32) mm. Twenty five women had a cervical length &lt; than 20. Cervical length was associated (X2 test p=0.007) with successful induction of labour. Mean cervical length was significantly different (student t test p=0.0003) between women with successful induction of labour (17.14 ± 3.94 mm) and women with failed induction of labour (23.4 ± 5.92 mm).Cervical length showed slightly good sensitivity (80.95%). It showed a positive predictive value of 68%, negative predictive value of 75% and specificity of 60%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Transvaginal ultrasound measures of cervical length before inducing a patient can help to identify women at risk for failed induction and reduce rate of unnecessary caesarean section and complications of prolonged and failed labour after induction.</p> Sherine Marian Chidananda Murthy M Rohit Kumar Sharma Prajwith Rai Francis N. P. Monteiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-03 2019-04-03 7 1 29 31 Utility of Computed Tomography of Abdomen and Pelvis in Cases of Intestinal Obstruction <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bowel obstruction is a common clinical condition that occurs secondary to mechanical or functional obstruction of the bowel. It is a frequent cause of hospitalization and surgical consultation, representing 20% of all surgical admissions for acute abdominal pain. Objectives: To evaluate the level and cause of intestinal obstruction. Assess the accuracy of imaging findings in correlation with operative findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study of 43 patients who presented with acute intestinal obstruction to our hospital. All the subjects underwent CT scan of abdomen and pelvis in helical multi-detector CT scan machine. The CT scan of abdomen and pelvis findings was compared and correlated with intra-operative findings. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 43 cases, 28 are males (65%) and 15 are females (35%). Only 17 cases (39.5%) had features of intestinal obstruction on the ultrasonography and only 13 cases (30%) had features of obstruction on abdominal radiography. This study showed 36 patients (83%) had small bowel obstruction and 7 (17%) had large bowel obstruction. In the small bowel, ileum was most common site to be obstructed accounting for about 63.8% of all small bowel obstruction. CT showed 100% correlation with intra-operative findings in assessing the level of obstruction. The most common cause for obstruction is post–operative adhesions which are seen in about 23.2 % cases. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study shows that CT is the imaging modality of choice in patients with acute intestinal obstruction to evaluate the level and cause of intestinal obstruction which did correlate well with intra-operative findings.</p> Bysani Swaroop Sindhu N Parthasarathi A Gautam M ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-03 2019-04-03 7 1 32 36