Microvascular complications and their association with duration of diabetes and glycemic indices in type 2 diabetes mellitus: An Hospital based study.
Microvascular complications and their association with duration of diabetes
Background: The increased incidence of diabetes rapidly globally at an alarming rate. The presence of microvascular complications has been shown to have a negative impact on patient’s quality of life. There are few clinical studies in this direction but most of them lack sufficient power and are focused only towards one specific complication. Subjects and Methods: An observational single arm cross sectional study done in 100 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus in department of medicine, Government Medical College Bharatpur, Rajasthan. Each subject underwent detailed history and complete clinical examination. Diabetes was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) revised criteria. Blood glucose level estimation was done by glucose oxidase method in venous blood. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) was measured by ion-exchange chromatography method. Results: The overall male to female ratio was approx 1:1 in our study. Our study showed that the maximum patients were suffering from retinopathy 12 (66.66%) in more than 10 years duration of diabetes. Mostly patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy 28 (90.32%) were occurred in more than 10 years & 5-10 years of duration of diabetes. Maximum cases of nephropathy 21 (50%) were seen in 5-10 years of duration of diabetes. So proportion of neuropathy, retinopathy & nephropathy significantly increases, when duration of diabetes increased in our results. Conclusion: Duration of diabetes was found to be a main culprit of micro vascular complication. Screening with some simple test such as ECG, fundoscopy, biothesiometer and biochemical tests namely, lipid, protein and fat profile for all cases of diabetes is essential to identify the complications at an early age.