Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Academia Journal of Medicine (AJM)</strong> is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-Annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in different fields of clinical medicine, covering etiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis aspects.<br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2663-8290 | Print ISSN: 2663-8282</strong></p> en-US dir.journals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) dir.journals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) Wed, 24 Jul 2019 18:26:35 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Clinical Profile of TB Patients on DOTS at a Tertiary Care Hospital https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/839 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis was considered to be among the top ten causes of global mortality and morbidity. The highest incidence of TB was found in developing countries. Estimates suggest that 32% of the world‟s population was infected with TB. In India, it was seen that TB kills more adults than any other infectious disease. 20% global burden of TB was in India.<strong> Subjects and Methods: </strong>Before initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment a detailed clinical assessment which included history and clinical examination was done. Hematological investigations like HIV test is done as per ICTC along with HBsAg. Hematological investigations included hemoglobin, WBC count, differential count, platelet count, prothrombin time and ESR. Biochemical investigations included total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, random blood sugar, blood urea, s.creatinine and uric acid. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of the 50 patients studied, 70 % patients were sputum positive and 30 % were sputum negative. This is probably because majority of the patients studied were pulmonary tuberculosis. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Adverse drug reaction was seen in 29 patients (58 %). One or more types of ADR was seen in these patients.</p> Arjun H, Santosh VG Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/839 Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Snake Bite Envenomation in Patients Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospital https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/881 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Snakebite envenoming is a potentially life-threatening disease that typically results from the injection of venom following the bite of a venomous snake. Sometimes envenoming can also be caused by venom being sprayed into a person’s eyes by certain species of snakes that have the ability to spit venom as a defense measure. Not all snakebites are venomous. Some snakes are non-venomous and venomous snakes do not always inject venom during a bite. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Patients were examined for complications of snake bite. Haemotoxicity was assessed based on features like bleeding from the bite site, gums, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematemesis, rectal bleeding or malaena, haematuria, vaginal bleeding, bleeding into the mucosae, skin (petechiae, purpura, discoid haemorrhages, ecchymoses. Neurotoxicity by drowsiness, paraesthesiae, abnormalities of taste and smell, ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, paralysis of facial muscles and other muscles innervated by the cranial nerves, respiratory and generalized flaccid paralysis. <strong>Results: </strong>Majority of the patients were farmers with 44% followed by housewives (26%). Lower limbs were the most common site of bite in our study group comprising of74% of the patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most common manifestation of envenomation is local envenomation comprising of 66%.</p> N. Kotresh, V. Sunitha Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/881 Tue, 13 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Correlation of Fasting Blood Glucose, Hb1Ac and Serum Lipid Level in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/914 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorder that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia caused due to either deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin resistance. The present study was conducted to assess correlation of fasting blood glucose, Hb1Ac and type II DM in given adults. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 134 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) of both genders. Patients were subjected to estimation of fasting and random blood glucose level. Modified method of Fluckiger and Winterhalter was used for estimation of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C). <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 134 patients, males were 84 and females were 50. Age group 20-30 years had 11, 30-40 years had 14, 40-50 years had 38, 50-60 years had 46 and &gt;60 years had 25 patients. The mean fasting blood glucose level in patients with good degree of control was 106.2, in fair was 164.4 and in poor was 208.2. Glycosylated hemoglobin level was good (6.74), fair (8.12) and poor (12.54). A positive correlation of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level and serum cholesterol &amp; glycosylated hemoglobin level (P&lt; 0.05) was found. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found a positive correlation of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level and serum cholesterol &amp; glycosylated hemoglobin level in type II diabetes mellitus patients</p> Nagendra Singh Chauhan, Hemendra Kumar Agrawal Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/914 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Hospital Based Cross-sectional Study on Demographic Distribution of Both Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients an Art at Westren Region of Rajasthan. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1002 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Over the past two decades with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is a substantial increase in the life span of HIV patients. Morbidity and mortality due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continue to be major problems in developing countries like India. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was a cross sectional hospital based study for a period of twelve months from 1st Nov. 2015 to 31st Oct. 2016 at ART center P.B.M. Hospital, Bikaner. 100 HIV+ patients on ART were included in the study by consecutive sampling technique. <strong>Results: </strong>We found that Maximum number of study participants in age group of 31-40 years in both study (50%) and control (42%) group. Males were higher in study (76%) as well as control (64%) group than females .Among the subjects mostly belonged to lower socioeconomic status followed by Medium and High socioeconomic status. Most of the subjects in study (92%) as well as control (94%) groups were married. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>We conclude that Males were higher in study (76%) as well as control (64%) group than females .Among the subjects mostly belonged to lower socioeconomic status followed by Medium and High socioeconomic status.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alok Gahlot, Pooja Gahlot, Jitendra Acharya Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1002 Tue, 08 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross Sectional Study on Correlation of Quantitative C - reactive protein With CD4 Count in Patients of HIV on Art https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1003 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Over the past two decades with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is a substantial increase in the life span of HIV patients. Hence, the focus has now shifted to managing long-term complications of HIV infection and improving the quality of life of HIV patients, especially in developed nations. On the other hand, in developing nations, the ever-growing incidence of HIV infection has placed a huge burden on their frail economy, so there is a growing need for simplifying HIV treatment protocols and for having cheaper alternatives for monitoring disease activity. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was a cross sectional hospital based study for a period of twelve months from 1st Nov. 2015 to 31st Oct. 2016 at ART center P.B.M. Hospital, Bikaner. 100 HIV+ patients on ART were included in the study by consecutive sampling technique. Out of 100 patients, 50 were symptomatic and included in study group and remaining 50 were asymptomatic and taken as controls. <strong>Results: </strong>37 (74%) patients in study group had CRP levels &gt;6 mg/lit (normal level &lt;6 mg/lit). Out of 37, 19 subjects (38% of total) had CRP level &gt;20 mg/lit. While in control group, 44 subjects (88%) had CRP level &lt;6 mg/lit.&nbsp; Only 6 (12%) subjects of control group had CRP level &gt;6mg/lit. None of control subjects had CRP level &gt;20 mg/lit. The CRP levels and CD4 count were negatively correlated in study group and this was observed to be statistically significant (p=0.04) whereas in control group, the CRP levels and CD4 counts were found to be very weakly positively correlated and this correlation was observed to be statistically insignificant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was statistical significant difference between CRP range and levels in both the groups. Also statistical significant difference between CD4 count range in both the groups.&nbsp; In our study, 38% of the study group patients had CRP &gt;20 mg/l whereas 88% of the control subjects had CRP of &lt;6 mg/l.</p> Alok Gahlot, Pooja Gahlot, Jitendra Acharya Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1003 Wed, 09 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Dengue Fever in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1056 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. Year after year, the prevalence of the disease is on a rise. This study is designed to study the clinical and laboratory parameters of Dengue patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care teaching hospital. This study was carried out for a period of two years between Jan 2017 to December 2018.Seventy-two patients were studied and analyzed. All patients with positive NS1 antigen and positive ELISA test were included in the study. Clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters were noted. <strong>Results: </strong>Of the 72 patients, majority were females (52.8 %). Fever was the most common symptom followed by other symptoms like head ache, myalgias etc. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dengue is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in our country. Early diagnosis and prompt management can have a positive effect on the outcome of the disease. Proper monitoring of the clinical and biochemical parameters and necessary intervention can bring down the mortality rates associated with this disease.</p> Kamal Rajesh Jampana, Atchuta Chytanya Paka Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1056 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Clinical and Laboratory profile of Scrub Typhus in a Tertiary care Teaching Hospital https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1057 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Scrub typhus, also known as bush typhus, is a disease caused by bacteria called Orienta tsutsugamushi. This ricketssial infection is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected heptombidium mite larvae. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All patients were subjected to investigations to establish cause of febrile illness. after complete physical examination routine laboratory investigations like CBC, serology for enteric , malaria, scrub typhus and USG abdomen, chest x-ray ,urine analysis and renal function tests were done in all patients. In all cases diagnosis was based on detection of antibodies using a single step rapid immunochromatography method. <strong>Results: </strong>120 patients, who were admitted with undifferentiated acute febrile illness during the study period diagnosed to be suffering from scrub typhus with positive antibodies, the following results were noted. Fever was the most common symptom seen in all the 120 patients (100%). The duration of fever ranging from one to seven days present in 94(78.3%), fever for 7-12days present in 5 (4.2%) patients and more than 2 weeks present in 5 (4.12%) patients. Headache and vomiting symptoms were the commonly associated symptoms. Generalized muscle pain (myalgia) was present in 63(52.5%) patients. Headache was present in 64 (53.3%), diarrohea was complained by 2 patients(1.7%), vomiting in 47(39.2%) patients, shortness of breath was present in 16 (13.3%) patients, abdominal pain was present in 17(14.2%)patients and skin rash was seen in 1 patient(0.8%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Majority of the cases of Scrub typhus are seen in the cooler months of the year and in the rainy season. It has to be considered in the&nbsp; differential diagnosis of undifferentiated acute febrile illness.</p> Atchuta Chytanya Paka, Kamal Rajesh Jampana Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1057 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Clinico-Hematological Study of Influenza Virus Infection https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1058 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Influenza is a seasonal infectious viral disease which accounts for approximately 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths in a yearly outbreak. The objectives of our study were to study the various clinical presentation of influenza infection and to correlate the demographic data and clinical symptoms with hematological parameters. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>95 cases which were positive by One-step RT-PCR were included in the study. Elevation of serum transaminase levels, thrombocytopenia and raised creatinine levels are important parameters which mandates vigilant follow up in patients with influenza infection. <strong>Results: </strong>The most common symptoms were fever in 88.42% and cough in 88.42% of cases. 51.57% of patients presented with anemia on admission. 11.5% of patients had thrombocytopenia of which 36.36% had elevated liver enzymes. 35.78% of cases had leukocytosis of which 32.35% had elevated liver enzymes. 15.78% of patients had raised creatinine levels. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors suggested that elevation of serum transaminase levels, thrombocytopenia and raised creatinine levels are important parameters which mandates vigilant follow up in patients with influenza infection.</p> Shivani Shenoy K, Raj Shekhar, Mary Mathew, G Arun Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1058 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Serum Ferritin and Glycated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1070 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies. Increased levels of serum ferritin have been indicated to be associated with the etiology of the diabetic process, as well as in pathogenesis of various diabetic complications. The study aims to understand the relationship between the serum ferritin and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted at Medical College Hospital and Research Centre. A total of hundred cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus of the age group 30 – 70 years were taken for the study after satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Hundred healthy volunteers in the age group 30 – 70 years, sex matched during the same period was included in the study under the control group. <strong>Results: </strong>Serum ferritin level was significantly high in cases compared to controls. There was moderate correlation between serum ferritin and glycated hemoglobin. There was significant increase in serum ferritin levels in type 2 diabetics compared to the controls. There was a moderate correlation between serum ferritin and glycated hemoglobin. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study explores the possibility of finding serum ferritin as a marker to explain the oxidative stress process in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This valuable information would be helpful in proper medical intervention.</p> Tanveer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1070 Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care Hospital https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1071 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus is described as a group of metabolic disorders of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion and/or action. Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant long term sequels, particularly damage or dysfunction of various organs especially kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart and blood vessels. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A pre-structured and pre-tested proforma was used to collect the data. Informed consent was taken from all cases and control subjects. Base line data including age and sex, detailed medical history including conventional risk factors, clinical examinations and relevant investigations were included as part of the methodology. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean serum FBS level among cases was 146.94±54.99 mg % as compared to 86.71±9.71 mg % among controls. There was highly significant difference in serum FBS levels among cases and controls. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The mean serum PPBS level among cases was 244.26±96.47 mg % as compared to 111.96±8.85 mg % among controls. There was highly significant difference in serum PPBS levels among cases and controls.</p> Tanveer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1071 Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Smokeless Tobacco Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1072 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The epidemiology of nicotine dependence indicates how strongly addictive a drug it is that nearly half of those who ever smoked steadily for a month become highly nicotine dependent. It is a psychoactive substance that induces euphoria, reinforces its own use, and leads to nicotine withdrawal syndrome when it is absent. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Written informed consent was taken from all the cases and controls prior to the detailed assessment. The personal data was recorded in the socio demographic data. They were administrated Modified Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence [FTND] and those who were nicotine dependent were then screened for psychiatric morbidity using GHQ – 12 [69] screening questionnaire. <strong>Results: </strong>Among those with psychiatric diagnosis majority had Major Depressive Disorder [24%], Generalized Anxiety disorder [18%], Mixed Anxiety Depressive disorder [10%] and Alcohol dependence syndrome[14%] as compared to non-nicotine dependents. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Severity of Anxiety and depression increased with the severity of nicotine dependence among the cases.Coping skills were not significantly different between cases and controls.</p> Vijayraj N Copyright (c) 2019 Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/1072 Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000