Academia Journal of Medicine https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Academia Journal of Medicine (AJM)</strong> is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-Annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in different fields of clinical medicine, covering etiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis aspects.<br><strong>Online ISSN: 2663-8290 | Print ISSN: 2663-8282</strong></p> en-US dir.journals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) shadanm168@gmail.com (Mr Shadan Pasha) Thu, 11 Nov 2021 05:59:01 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of Utility of Carbamylated Hemoglobin in Determining the Overall Adequacy of Hemodialysis https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2088 <p><strong>Background: </strong>CKD is characterized by progressive and ongoing loss of kidney function of not &lt;3 months duration with or without decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD leads to increase in blood urea and serum creatinine levels. The present study was conducted to assess the utility of Carbamylated Hemoglobin in determining the overall adequacy of Hemodialysis. <strong>Subjects &amp; Methods: </strong>25 patients with chronic kidney disease divided into two groups and one healthy control group. Carbamylated Hemoglobin (CHb) checked at 0 and at 3 months. Kt/V assessed at 0 and 3 months and average Kt/V was calculated. <strong>Results: </strong>There was non- significant difference in Kt/V, Valine hydantoin absorbance at 570 nm, CHb (ug/gm Hb) and blood flow rate (ml/min) at 8 hours and 12 hours (P&gt; 0.05). The regression equation at 3 months is CHb. = 482.33 +0.122 age (Yrs) – 0.492 gender + 0.192 duration(months) - 0.624 HD frequency/wks(Hrs) - 0.207 HD vintage(months) + 0.063 BMI + 6.021 Hb.(gm%) + 0.011 BUL(mg/dl) – 0.191 Creatinine(mg/dl) + 0.123 Na(mmol/l) – 1.047 K(mmol/l) + 5.642 Alb.(gm/dl) – 55.12 pH + 0.903 HCO3 - 0.018 iPTH(pg/ml) – 11.54 Kt/V – 96.54 Valine hydantoin absorbance + 0.005 Blood Flow Rate (ml/min). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Carbamylated haemoglobin had a direct correlation with blood urea nitrogen levels and with serum creatinine levels in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis.</p> Syed Mohd Azhar Hassan, Atul Sajgure, Pavan Wakhare, Nilesh Shinde, John Abraham Tharayil, Nishant Vyas, Tushar Dighe Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2088 Thu, 11 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Clinical Study of Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients at ICTC Center in Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur with Correlation to CD4 + at Presentation https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2136 <p><strong>Background: </strong>WHO estimates that with continued escalation of HIV transmission, nearly 9 million HIV-infected people will reside in South-East Asia by the turn of the century. In India, two new infections occur every minute. National Aids Control Organization (NACO) estimates that&nbsp; by year 2025 the majority of new HIV infections in the world will occur in Asia and India will probably have the largest number of infected persons of any single country. The objectives is to study the baseline values of CD+ count in newly diagnosed to be infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present cross sectional study was conducted at Shri B M Patil Medical College and Hospital, Bijapur form March 2017 to April 2018. A total of 100 newly Diagnosed HIV Patients of all Age Group either asymptomatic or presenting with one or other opportunity infections are included in the study. <strong>Results: </strong>39% of them were in the age group of 35-45 years. Cough fever and weight loss were the most common clinical presentation on admission. The most common opportunistic infection at presentation was Pulmonary Tuberculosis (74%). followed by Candidiasis (62%). Among the population studied, majority were in the 35-45 yr. age group (39) out of which 25 individuals had a CD 4 count of&lt; 200 cells/3. In the patients with CD 4 Count less than 200 cell extra pulmonary tuberculosis was most common. Candidiasis was also seen in the patients with CD4 count less than 200 cell/l. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The most common route of transmission was the sexual route, predominantly heterosexual route.. The patients being diagnosed with HIV infection present with one or more of the opportunistic infections and frequently have a CD 4+ count &lt; 200 cells/l. This calls for increasing awareness about HIV in the general population so as to identify the disease at the earliest.</p> Ashwini Patil, L S Patil Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2136 Thu, 11 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 To Correlate Socio-Demographic Factors with Glycemic Control and Awareness of Complications among Diabetes Mellitus Patients https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2138 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes currently affects more than 62 million Indians, which is more than 7.2% of the adult population. The average age on onset is 42.5 years. Nearly 1 million Indians die due to diabetes and its complications every year. Education is one of the key components in ensuring better treatment and control of diabetes. There is also evidence to show that increasing knowledge regarding diabetes and its complications has significant benefits including increase in compliance to treatment, thereby decreasing the complications associated with diabetes. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>It is a cross sectional study, which included 430 diabetic patients attending general medicine OPD of Subbaiah institute of medical science and hospital, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected using self-designed questionnaire and entered in excel sheet and compared using SPSS Ver 21. The aim is to study the association between glycemic control and socio-demographic variables in&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; our study population, to study the association between awareness of complication in diabetes with socio-demographic variables. <strong>Results: </strong>Our study included 430 diabetic patients who attended medicine OPD of Subbaiah institute of medical science and hospital. Of which 206 (47.6%) were male and 227 (52.4%) were females. We had 254 (58.7%) of rural patients and 179 (47.3%) of patients from urban side. In our study we found that coronary vascular disease (47%) was most known complication, followed by retinopathy (39.9%) then by nephropathy (37%), and by neuropathy (30%). Awareness about peripheral vascular disease was least among our study population. Hypoglycaemia symptoms were reported more in the rural population than urban population. Regarding glycaemic control 44% of patients had their sugars between 200 to 300 mg/ dl. There was no statistical significant difference in blood sugar levels between urban and rural population. <strong>Conclusion : </strong>Awareness of complication of diabetes was low in our study group. There was no significant difference in awareness of diabetic complication and glycaemic control between the urban and rural population. Hence irrespective of place of residence people needs to be educated regarding diabetes, its chronicity and need for regular monitoring of blood sugars to avoid its complication from developing.</p> H P Mallikarjun, Ramya Bhat S, Nayana Raju, A G Kiran Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2138 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Retrospective Observational Study of the Occurrence of Thromboembolic Complications in the Post COVID-19 Phase and its Association with CT Severity Score https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2150 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To present thromboembolic complications after recovery from covid-19 and determine its Association with CT severity score. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>An observational study was conducted retrospectively over a period of 1 month during which all cases who presented with thromboembolic complications after being discharged from covid-19 were enrolled. The data pertaining to the socio-demography, haematological parameters and inflammatory markers such as LDH, IL-6, ferritin, CRP and D-Dimer were recorded at the time of admission with COVID-19. Initial chest HRCT scans were done at presentation. For determining the area of embolism, CT angiography was done in the region of head and neck, coronary and lower limb as per the presenting symptoms. The patients were thrombolysed/ revascularized and followed up until recovery/death. <strong>Results : </strong>HRCT scoring was normal in 59.18% cases, mild in 8.16% and severe in 32.65% cases. Thromboembolic complications were seen in all patients, common being peripheral vascular disease (53.06%) followed by&nbsp; coronary artery disease&nbsp; (38.78%) and lastly cerebrovascular accidents (8.16%). Mean value of post covid days of study subjects was 12.33 5.34 with median (25th-75th percentile) of 11(8-16). There was only a single mortality in the present study. HRCT score showed a significant association with the presence of hypertension (p=0.011,) and leukocytosis (p=0.004). However there was no significant association of HRCT with the region of thromboembolism. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Thromboembolic complications are common in the initial month of post covid phase. Comorbidities like hypertension needs to be controlled as it shows a significant association with HRCT severity. Inflammatory levels of IL-6 and CRP may be implicated in the occurrence of thromboembolism. An early identification, treatment and thromboprophylaxis is required in such cases for a better outcome.</p> Ramesh Patel, Sandeep Aggarwal, Avi Shah, Pal Satyajit Singh, Kapil Bhargava Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2150 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Coronary Artery Disease. https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2268 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To study the association of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in patients of Coronary Artery Disease. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>100 patients of established CAD admitted were included in the study. Patients were screened for NAFLD with USG. 2 groups were made: CAD with NAFLD &amp; CAD without NAFLD and comorbidities were identified and evaluated for Risk Factors and Correlation was identified. <strong>Result: </strong>Majority of study subjects (79%) were males and 21% were females. Highest proportion of subjects (29%) were in 51-60 years of age and lowest (9%) in above 70 years of age. Chest pain was the commonest presenting symptom preceding breathlessness and sweating. In the fatty liver group, a high proportion of subjects had history of Type-II DM (31% vs 4%) and Hypertension (18% vs 11%) in comparison to normal liver group. The mean BMI of study participants in the present study was 29.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. In fatty liver group, higher proportion of subjects had fasting blood glucose levels &gt; 126 (66.7%) than the non-fatty liver subjects (3.8%). higher proportion of subjects had total cholesterol levels higher than 200 (14.6%) than the non-fatty liver subjects (1.9%). In group with non-fatty liver, greater proportion of subjects had LDL levels higher than 100 (40.4%) than the fatty liver group (33.3%). it was found that 37.5% subjects had mild grade of NAFLD whereas 43.8% had moderate grade and 18.7% had severe grade of NAFLD. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a significant relationship between NAFLD and an elevated CVD risk in those with or without Metabolic Syndrome.</p> Aashima Walia, Vishvanayak, Vinod Kumar Singh, Gaurav Singh Raghuwanshi , Sukriti Azad, Satyam Leekha Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2268 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Neck Circumference as a Marker for Obesity and its Association with Metabolic Syndrome https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2269 <p>Background: To Study the relationship of measuring neck circumference as a marker for obesity and to assess the association of neck circumference and metabolic syndrome. Subjects and Methods: Patient fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome based on criteria. A cut off value of Neck Circumference was calculated and association between increased neck circumference and different parameters of Metabolic Syndrome was evaluated. Results: 23.90% Subjects had normal NC whereas 76.10% had high NC. The mean NC among the study subjects was 38.18±2.43.High NC was seen in 62.79% males and 81.03% females. Mean age of subjects having high NC was 52.04 ±9.82 years. Mean weight for subjects was 78.37 ± 9.45 kgs. Mean BMI for subjects was 33.24 ± 5.62 kg/m2. Mean SBP was 135.21 ± 8.42 mmHg and DBP was 86.08 ± 4.98 mmHg Mean FBG was 144.78 ± 41.02 among subjects with high NC. The mean triglycerides were 163.75 ± 42.19, mean HDL was 38.96 ± 9.42, mean LDL was 114.11 ± 34.66, and mean VLDL was 33.67 ± 8.82.The ROC among the scoring system was found to be highly significant. Overall NC cut off ≥38.0cm was found to be effective for evaluation of metabolic syndrome. In the study population, among males the cutoff value was 38.5 cm while the same was found to be 34.5 cm for females The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Neck circumference in the prediction of metabolic syndrome is 87%, 100%,100%, 94% respectively. The accuracy rate of Neck circumference was 84.50%. Conclusion: Neck Circumference was revealed to be a better, simpler and more reliable independent anthropometric measurement as predictor of metabolic syndrome, adiposity and cardiovascular risk than BMI.</p> Anubhav Lalit, Soubhagya Mishra, Vinod Kumar Singh, Satyam Leekha, Kajal, Sukriti Azad Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2269 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 To Compare Effectiveness and Safety of Teneligliptin vs Glimepiride in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2271 <p>Background:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;To determine the efficacy of Teneligliptin [DPP-4 inhibitor] vs Glimepiride [sulfonylurea] in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Patients with inadequate glycemic control with maximum tolerable dose of metformin were randomly divided into 2 groups (Group A &amp;amp; Group B). Group A was started on Teneligliptin and Group B on Glimepiride. The patients were assessed for weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post parandial glucose (PPG), HbA1c and Lipid Profile. The patients were followed up in OPD for 3 months. The difference in all the mentioned parameters were used to determine the efficacy of Teneligliptin V/S Glimepiride. Result: There were more males as compared to females. Most of the subjects in both the groups were having age &amp;gt;50 years. Mean age in group A and B was 58.72±12.78 and 59.31±13.06 years individually. Family history of diabetes was discovered in 38.69% and 45.61% of the subjects in group A and B individually. The duration of diabetes was 42.11% and 47.37% of the subjects in group A and B since 5-10 years. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease were found in 14.04%, 5.26% and 19.30%, 3.51% of the subjects in group A and B. Lipid profile viz. Cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL was similar among both the groups as p&amp;gt;0.05. Conclusion: In the current research, Glimepiride as well as Teneligliptin were very much endured when added to Metformin. Patients on Metformin+Teneligliptin displayed better command in control of glycemic profile as well as lipid profile. Thus, Teneligliptin is the better choice as an add-on medication to Metformin in type 2 diabetes patients.</p> Arvind Sharma, Alok Singhal , Vinod Kumar Singh , Anmol Gera , Singam Sumeeth Kumar , Sushrut Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2271 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Association between High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Undergoing Angiography for Acute Coronary Syndrome https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2274 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To evaluate association between high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing angiography for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>Type 2 Diabetic patients who presented with Acute Coronary Syndrome were subjected to Angiography and Comparison of HDL &amp; HbA1c level in view of single vessel or multi vessel Coronary Artery Disease was done to Evaluate association/correlation between HDL &amp; HbA1c level with single/multi vessel Coronary Artery Disease. <strong>Result: </strong>In present study out of 90 subjects who have undergone C.A.G, 29 (32.22%) had S.V.D and 61 (67.78%) had M.V.D. In present study no. of male patients with S.V.D was 22 (75.86%) and females were 7 (24.14%). Whereas, no. of male patients with M.V.D were 45 (73.77%) and females were 16 (26.23%). Maximum no. of patients with S.V.D belong to age group &lt;40 years (n=11, 37.93%). Maximum no. of patients with M.V.D belong to age group 51-60 years (n=26, 42.62%), Maximum patients had S.T.E.M.I i.e., n=73 (81.11%), whereas N.S.T.E.M.I was present in only 17 patients (18.89%). Among those with S.V.D, 72.41% (n=21) had HbA1c 6.5 to 8.4 and among 27.59% (n=8) had HbA1c &gt;8.5. Among those with Multi vessel disease, 68.85% (n=42) had HbA1c &gt;8.5 and 31.15% (n=19) had HbA1c of 6.5 to 8.4. There was significant inverse correlation present between level of H.D.L and number of vessel involved. Most of the patients with L.D.L 100 had Multi vessel disease (n=53, 86.99%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The severity of A.C.S, as measured by a single or multi-vessel disease on coronary angiography, is directly linked to poor glycemic management, as measured by a higher HbA1c. The severity of A.C.S is also linked to an abnormal lipid profile, such as elevated L.D.L and low-H.D.L.</p> Jiwan Kumar, Alok Singhal , Vinod Kumar Singh, Veeresh Kumar Dhani , Sandhya Chauhan , Gaurav Singh Raghuwanshi Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2274 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Dapagliflozin Effectiveness as Add-on Therapy for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2275 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess effectiveness of Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. <strong>Method: </strong>Dapaglifozin was added as add on treatment in all the patients after the initial standard management. They were divided into groups based on the initial combinations with comparable baseline readings for HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Differences in the values of HbA1c and FBG following treatment with Dapagliflozin was evaluated at 3 months. <strong>Result: </strong>Among all 130 subjects, the 56.92% were males and 43.08% were females. Maximum subjects belonged to the age group of 50-59 years. The mean age of the subjects was 54.02 years. Out of 130 subjects, 29.23% had a history of T2DM. Most of the subjects had T2DM from last 8-10 years (53.08%), Out of 130 subjects, 16.92% had hypertension, 10.77% had cardiovascular disease and 6.15% had other co-morbidities. The mean body weight and height among the subjects after the intervention was 68.96Kg and 162.09 respectively. Glycemic parameters among the study subjects after the intervention showed a mean HbA1c value of 7.05%, mean FBG value of 131.73mg/dl and mean PPBG value of 204.98mg/dl. Mean HbA1c level achieved after 6 months of Dapagliflozin treatment was 7.62% in our patient population. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dapagliflozin was well tolerated in patients with T2DM and it lowered HbA1c levels and body weight after the intervention compared to baseline. The study found no adverse effect, implying that Dapaglifozin has a tolerable tolerability profile.</p> Sandhya Chauhan, Hare Krishna , Veeresh Kumar Dhanni, Jiwan Kumar, Gaurav Singh Raghuwanshi Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2275 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Outcome of Direct-Acting Antivirals in Treatment-Naïve Non-Cirrhotic, Chronic Hepatitis-C Infected Patients in a Tertiary Care Center https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2281 <p>Background: To determine the outcome of Direct-Acting Antivirals in treatment-naïve Non-Cirrhotic, Chronic Hepatitis-C infected patients in a tertiary care Centre. Subjects and Methods: Hepatitis C positive non cirrhotics patients were included in the study. Treatment was given according to HCV Genotype and HCV Viral Load. 12 weeks after completion of treatment with Direct-acting antivirals patient were assessed for the Sustained Virological Response (SVR) ie.;SVR12. Results: The (Mean±SD) age was found to be 43.92±13.51 years. There are 11(44%) male whereas 14(56%) female. Out of total subjects, 3(12%) had diabetes mellitus whereas 5(20%) reported hypertension. Genotype 3 was found to be most common (72%). The mean±SD after treatment A.L.T U./L, A.S.T U/.L and I.N.R observed was 13.95±4.90, 14.97±5.03 and 1.40±0.54 respectively. The mean±SD Total Bilirubin mg/dL, Albumin g/dL and Hb g/dl observed was 0.72±0.32, 3.99±0.57 and 11.49±1.46 respectively. In 23 (92%) subjects S.V.R was achieved whereas in 2(8%) cases it was not achieved. Conclusion:Oral D.A.A accomplished higher SVR12 rates and were very much endured in this cohort based study associated with patients diagnosed with Chronic Hepatitis-C.</p> Sushrut Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Vinod Kumar Singh , Anmol Gera, Arvind Sharma , Singam Sumeeth Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2281 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 To evaluate the Efficacy of Teneligliptin as an add-on Therapy in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Patients with Inadequate Glycemic Control with a Stable dose of Metformin 1 to 2g and Glimipride 1 to 6mg Per Day https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2282 <p>Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of Teneligliptin as an add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients inadequately controlled with a stable dose of Metformin and Glimipride. Subjects and Methods: Pateints with type II DM on Metformin 1-2gm per day and Glimipride 1-4mg per day were prescribed with TENELIGLIPTIN 20mg tablet once daily. The patients Were followed up in OPD every month till 3 months. At the end of 3 months, Blood Pressure, Body weight CBC,KFT,LFT, Lipid Profile, Fasting Blood sugar, 2 hours Post parandial Blood sugar and HbA1c was assessed. The difference in all the mentioned parameters was used to determine the effectiveness of TENELIGLIPTIN. Result: There were more males as compared to females. Mean age among the study subjects was 59.08±12.17 years Family history of diabetes was revealed in 34.17% of the subjects.48.33% of the subjects had diabetes since 5-10 years. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease was revealed in 14.17% and 6.67% of the subjects respectively. After intervention, mean weight among study subjects reduced to 71.97 from 72.61. After intervention; HbA1c, FBS and PPBS reduced to 7.02±0.44, 131.70±6.17 and 204.95±9.39 Mean Triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL among the study subjects was 151.76±6.19, 38.28±2.87, 108.11±6.43 and 39.32±3.12 among the study subjects. Conclusion: The present assessment shows patients with T2DM who were treated with teneligliptin had measurably large and clinical important reductions in HbA1c levels.</p> Anmol Gera, Vinod Kumar Singh , Hare Krishna , Arvind Sharma , Sushrut Gupta , Singam Sumeeth Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2282 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thyroid Function Abnormalities in Critically Ill Patients https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2283 <p>Background: To study the alterations in thyroid hormone levels in critically ill patients. Subjects and Methods: Fasting venous blood samples were collected on admission to ICU from all critically ill patients and were subjected for thyroid hormone analysis by VIDAS-ELISA. They were also be evaluated for body temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and impairment of consciousness on the Glasgow coma scale. Arterial blood gas analysis, complete blood count, liver function test, renal function test was interpreted, and the APACHE II score was calculated. Course and the outcome of these patients were followed in the hospital. Result: Maximum patient belong to 41-50 years age group (n=34, 34%) Maximum patients were male (n=69, 69%) and rest were females (n=31, 31%). 42 (42%) patients required Ventilator assistance. The mean APACHE-II score was significantly higher among non-survivors compared with survivors (25.52 ± 6.84 vs. 14.06 ± 5.71, P &amp;lt; 0.01). The mean value of TSH was 3.27±6.91. The mean value of FT3 was 3.42±0.36. The mean value of FT4 was 14.79±1.17. A total of 22 patients (22%) succumbed to their illness during ICU admission. The mean level of both FT3 and FT4 were lower in non-survivors (2.98, 13.39) as compared to survivors (3.82,15.71). The mean level of TSH was lower in non-survivors (2.63) as compared to survivors (4.07). Conclusion: FT3 and FT4 was lesser in non-survivors as compared to survivors with significant difference. Although TSH level was lower in non-survivors as compared to survivors, but there was not statistically significant difference.FT3 and FT4 were the best independent predictors of ICU mortality.</p> Kajal, Vishvanayak, Vinod Kumar Singh, Hare Krishna , Anubhav Lalit , Satyam Leekha Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2283 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Anxiety and Depression Among Patients with COPD https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2303 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim is to assess anxiety and depression among patients with COPD. <strong>Subjects and Methods : </strong>One hundred five adult patients in age ranged 20-60 years of either sex diagnosed with COPD were included. Parameters such as name age, smoking habit, history of alcoholism, duration of treatment, type of family, education and occupation etc. was recorded. The level of anxiety and depression among patients was recorded. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 105 patients of COPD, males constituted 45 (39.2%) and females 65 (61.8%). The level of anxiety was low in 68, moderate in 25 and severe in 12. Depression was found to be normal in 23, mild in 30, borderline in 11, moderate in 25, severe in 6 and extreme in 5 patients. A significant difference was observed (P&lt; 0.05). 52% literate and 68% illiterate had low and 48% illiterate and 32% illiterate&nbsp;&nbsp; had moderate/ severe anxiety. 66% married and 45% unmarried and 34% married and 55% unmarried had low and moderate/ severe anxiety respectively. 65% employed and 62% unemployed had low, 35% employed and 38% unemployed had moderate/ severe anxiety. 80% smokers had low and 20% had moderate/ severe anxiety respectively. 61% alcoholics had low and 39% had moderate/ severe anxiety respectively. &gt;5 years of treatment was seen in 47% having low and 53% had moderate/ severe anxiety respectively. A significant difference was observed (P&lt; 0.05). A significant difference was observed in education, smoking and duration of treatment in patients of COPD having depression (P&lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most of the COPD patients had moderate anxiety and depression.</p> Ajay Abel Mall Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://aijournals.com/index.php/ajm/article/view/2303 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000