Academia Journal of Medicine <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Academia Journal of Medicine (AJM)</strong> is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-Annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in different fields of clinical medicine, covering etiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis aspects.<br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2663-8290 | Print ISSN: 2663-8282</strong></p> Dr Sanket Hiware, College of Medicine and Health Science, DireDawa University, Ethiopia. en-US Academia Journal of Medicine 2663-8282 Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure and MDA in Mild Hypertensive Patients <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have emerges as the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Essential hypertension is one of the important risk factor for CVD in modern society despite advanced and effective management. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a well known marker of oxidative stress, which is produced by oxidation of poly unsaturated fatty acid. Nadishodhanpranayam leads to decrease stress as well as blood pressure.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>It was an interventional type of study. Ninety seven mild hypertensive patients (53 males and 44 females) of group I completed the yoga program. While, fifty normotensive subjects were include as control in group II. Blood pressure and MDA was measured of every participants before and after three months of yoga program.<strong>Results:</strong>Total ninety seven mild hypertensive patients of age 33.6± 8.66 years of group I completed three months yoga program. However, fifty subjects (34.7± 7.73 years)of group II had not done any yogic exercise during three months. Results of the present study showed that there was a significant difference in SBP (p&lt;0.001), DBP (p&lt;0.001), HR (p&lt;0.001), PP (p&lt;0.001) and MAP (p&lt;0.001) group I mild hypertensive patients after following three months yoga program. There was a significant difference between before and after yoga program MDA level of group I mild hypertensive patients. However, there was an insignificant difference between before and after three months level of MDA in group II control subjects.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this study, it has been observed that daily practice of yoga improves the blood pressure of mild hypertensive patients. Moreover, it substantially decreases the oxidative stress. Yoga can be an effective alternative to reduce the blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients either with medication or without medication.</p> Asma Ali Khan AshfaqueUr Rehman Adil Ali Zaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 1 2 1 4 Comparative Study of Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Pleural Effusion of Tuberculous and Non Tuberculous Etiology; A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is very common in developing countries in comparison of developed countries; further TPE is one of the common characteristic of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an important enzyme which is found highly active in the diseases which induce cellular immunity. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of ADA level in the diagnosis of pleural effusion caused by tubercular etiology.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>This was a cross-sectional type of study conducted at tertiary care institute. Total one hundred thirty five patients of pleural effusion were recruited for the study among them eighty nine pleural effusion patients were suffering with tuberculosis and forty six pleural effusion patients were without tuberculosis. A p-value &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. IBM SPSS Statistics 21 manufactured by IBM USA was used for entire calculations.<strong>Results:</strong>Findings of the present study have shown there was significant difference between ADA level of tubercular effusion patients (69.3±27.22) in comparison of non-tubercular pleural effusion patients (20.46±7.34). Further there was a significance difference between Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels of the tubercular effusion patients (172.72±25.7) in comparison of non-tubercular pleural effusion patients (81.91±6356). However there was no significance difference between total protein (p&gt;0.05), glucose level (p&gt;0.05) and total cells (p&gt;0.05) level of both groups.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Finding of the present study showed that The ADA level was significantly high in pleural effusion patients with tubercular etiology in comparison of non-tubercular pleural effusion.</p> Abeer A. Nosseir M Nermine Tawfik Mahmoud Salau K Mona K. Khalik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 1 2 5 8 Assessment of Cases of Stroke in Emergency Department <p><strong>Background: </strong>One of the leading causes of death and adult disability among general population is stroke. The efficacy of acute stroke treatment is very time dependant. This includes both pharmacological and mechanical thrombolysis. Hence; we planned the present study to assess the cases of stroke which reported to the emergency department of the institution.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>The present study included assessment of cases of stroke which reported to the emergency department of the medical institution. A total of 50 cases of stroke were included in the present study. Complete demographic details of all the patients were obtained. All the results were compiled in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.<strong>Results:</strong>Dyslipidaemia was found to be present in 80 percent of the patients. Disturbances in speck and visual disturbances were found to be present in 78 percent and 80 percent of the patients. Motor and sensory symptoms were found to be present in 72 percent and 64 percent of the patients. Headache and dizziness was present in 84 percent and 78 percent of the patients.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Stoke represent a significant health problem with high mortality and morbidity. It is more common in elderly subjects with positive history of smoking and dyslipidaemia.</p> Antonio Arnaiz-Villena Javier Alonso-Rubio Valentín Ruiz-del-Valle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 1 2 9 11 Relationship between Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Anaemia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic hyperglycemia in uncontrolled diabetes is related to higher incidence of anaemia which goes unrecognized prior to the development of chronic renal failure.This study was conducted to know the prevalence of Anaemia in persons with with Type II Diabetes Mellitus,in relation to glycemic control using HbA1c as a tool to it.<strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong>60 Diabetic subjects were divided into two groups of 30 each based on their glycemic control(group A,with poor glycemic control and group B with good glycemic control taking 7% Hba1c as cut off value),incidence of anaemia was measured and compared among them and also with 30 age and sex matched healthy non Diabetic controls.<strong>Results:</strong>Incidence of anaemia was found to be significantly higher in diabetics group as compared to non diabetics and among diabetics it was significantly higher in uncontrolled group as compared to group with controlled diabetes.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Good glycemic control in diabetes is associated with a better haemoglobinlevels,hence it is desirable to evaluate the haemoglobin level often to monitor the micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes even when the renal parameters are normal.</p> Anand Dev Nitali Arun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 1 2 12 15 Developing a Vaccine for Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease: Current Research Strategies and Challenges <p>Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious manifestations of rheumatic fever, which is caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS or Streptococcus pyogenes) infection. RHD is an auto immune sequelae of GAS pharyngitis, rather than the direct bacterial infection of the heart, which leads to chronic heart valve damage. Although antibiotics like penicillin are effective against GAS infection, improper medical care such as poor patient compliance, overcrowding, poverty, and repeated exposure to GAS, leads to acute rheumatic fever and RHD. Thus, effort to design a vaccine based on emm gene identification of GAS, M-protein going on for more than 40 years, is unlikely to succeed. M-protein is strain specific. Infection with one strain does not provide immunity from infection with another strain. Based on the emm gene identification, of 250 or more identified strains of GAS, the distribution is heterogenous and keeps changing. The M-protein gene sequence of the organism tends to mutate. A vaccine prepared from available strains may not be effective against a strain following mutation.</p> MsiTipu Chowdhury Harisul Hoque Sm Mustafa Zaman Manzoor Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 1 2 16 19 Analysis of Cardiac Profile in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: An Observational Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury that leads to portal hypertension and end stage liver disease.Studies suggested that underlying cardiac dysfunction precedes the development of Hepato-renal syndrome. hence; under the light of above mentioned data, we planned the present study to assess the cardiac profile in patients with liver cirrhosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 30 liver cirrhosis patients were included in the present study. Routine haematological profile of all the patients was carried was assessed. Transthoracic 2 D echo with Doppler was done in all patients and parameters (Left atrial enlargement, Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction) were assessed. Liver disease was staged according to Child-Pugh’s score. All the results were compiled and analyzed by SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>Significant results were obtained while correlating the patients with left atrial enlargement and severity of liver cirrhosis. Also, significant results were obtained while correlating the patients with diastolic dysfunction and severity of liver cirrhosis. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cardiac parameters are directly correlated with the severity of the disease in liver cirrhosis patients.</p> Gautam Gupta Mangat Ram Passi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 1 2 20 22