Effect of CO2 Pneumoperitoneum on Liver Function Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Liver Function Change Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

  • Rajesh Godara Professor, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1306-501X
  • Ankur Kajal Senior Resident, Department of Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
  • Amit Nehra Junior Resident, Department of Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
Keywords: Cholecystectomy, laparoscopic, pneumoperitoneum, liver function tests

Abstract

Background: Laparoscopic provides access to abdominal cavity for both diagnostic and therapeutic surgical interventions which were previously only possible through laparotomy. Recent studies have shown marked rise in serum liver enzymes after laparoscopic surgeries which is considered to be related to the impaired liver and splanchnic perfusion. The present study has been carried out with the aim to comprehend changes in liver enzymes after laparoscopic vs conventional cholecystectomy and the effects of these on outcomes of surgery. Subjects and Methods: Between January 2018 and June 2019, 100 patients with symptomatic gall stones which were eligible for cholecystectomy were enrolled in this prospective clinical observational trial. Randomisation to laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy was performed by using a sealed envelope technique just before surgery. All cases were operated by the same consultant surgeon with a standard anaesthetic protocol. Liver function tests were performed before surgery, at 24 hours and day seven postoperatively. Results: In the laparoscopic group, a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes both aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed after 24 hrs of surgery as compared to preoperative values (p<.001) and then again touching normal serum level on 7thday postoperatively. Whereas in open cholecystectomy patients, only a slight variation in the liver enzymes was observed, which was not significant compared to preoperative level (p>.05). No statistically significant changes in serum level of GGT, ALP and bilirubin was seen in either group. No mortality or bile duct injury was observed in this study. Conclusion: Transient elevation in level of liver enzymes occurs after cholecystectomy in both open and laparoscopy group but more in laparoscopic arm attributed to CO2 pneumoperitoneum with possibly some other factors contributing to this. These changes return to normal in a week time after the procedure, and no major complication is generally seen in these patients with normal preoperative liver function, but these temporary derangements at times may be of concern to surgeons for its implication to the integrity of biliary tract.

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Published
2020-12-27