Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research (AJMRR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in radiology and medical imaging. <br> <strong>Online ISSN: 2347-338X | Print ISSN: 2347-3371</strong></p> en-US dir.aijournals@gmail.com (Dr. Rohit Varshney) Sun, 14 Jul 2019 06:18:40 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Retrospective Evaluation of Radiographic Findings in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Observational Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/813 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis remains a worldwide health hazard instead well documented well publicized methods of prevention and cure. Chest radiographs are used to stratify for risk and to assess for asymptomatic active disease. Hence; we planned the present study to retrospectively analyze the data of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients for analyzing the spectrum of radiographic findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In the present study, we analyzed the data records of a total of 100 pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A self-framed master cart was prepared in which, past medical history, clinical history, radiographic findings, clinical findings of all the patients was obtained. Data records of only those patients were analyzed in which both clinical and bacteriologic confirmation of the disease was present. Radiographs were evaluated. Only preoperative radiographic findings were taken into consideration. <strong>Results: </strong>The most common radiographic finding was hilar lymph node, found to be present in 66 percent of the patients. Unilateral nodular infiltration was found to be present in 25 percent of the patients. Patchy consolidation was seen in 22 percent of the patients. Fibrotic scar was seen in 10 percent of the patients while calcified nodule was seen in 8 percent of the patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In diagnosing and assessing the extent of severity among tuberculosis patients, radiographic imaging is a vital tool.</p> Nitin Dasrath Wadhwani, Niranjan Bapusaheb Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/813 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of CT Scans Findings in Seizures Patients: An Observational Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/814 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Seizures may occur in up to 10% of the population. There is general consensus that adults with an unprovoked first seizure should have brain imaging with either CT or MRI primarily to identify any process that may be responsible for the seizure. Hence; under the light of above mentioned data, the present study was planned for assessing CT scans and their findings in seizures patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All the patients reporting with the history of seizure disorder were admitted to the emergency department and were treated accordingly. Complete past medical and clinical history of all the patients was obtained. In all the patients, EEG was done and findings of the EEG were correlated with the final diagnosis.&nbsp; In all the patients CT scan was done. Diagnosis was confirmed after correlating the clinical findings of all the patients with clinical history and microbiological investigation reports.&nbsp; All the results were analyzed by SPSS software .<strong>Results: </strong>Tuberculoma was found to be present among in 18 patients with partial seizures. Cerebral infarct was found to be present in 10 patients with partial seizures and among 15 patients with generalized seizures. Focal cerebral edema was found to be present in 10 patients with partial seizures. Diffuse cerebral edema was found to be present in 13 patients with generalized seizures. Brain tumour was found to be present among 6 patients with partial seizures. Calcifications were found to be present in 4 patients with partial seizures and 10 patients with generalized seizures. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT is sensitive for detection of neural lesions and is advocated in seizure patients. However; further studies are recommended.</p> Niranjan Bapu saheb Patil, Nitin Dashrath Wadhwani Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/814 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Prevalence of Abnormal Neurological Findings on MRI in Patients Presenting with Chronic Headache: A Clinical Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/815 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic headache is one of the common presenting complaints in patients reporting to general practitioner. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used to aid diagnosis but unlike CT it does not use ionizing radiation. Hence; we assessed the prevalence of abnormal neurological findings on MRI in patients presenting with chronic headache. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 100 patients reporting to the department with chief complaint of non-specific chronic headache were enrolled in the present study. Detailed demographic data and past medical history of all the patients was obtained. We also obtained complete history of present illness. MRI was done in all the patients under the hands of skilled and experienced radiologists. MRI findings were analyzed and were summarized in Microsoft excel sheet and were assessed by SPSS software. Chi- square test was used for assessment of level of significance. <strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of the patients of the present study was 40.8 years. Majority of the patients (49 percent) belonged to the age group of 30 to 50 years. 31 percent of the patients belonged to the age group of less than 30 years. 58 percent of the patients of the present study were males while the remaining 42 percent were females. Abnormal MRI findings were found to be present in 22 percent of the patient population. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Chronic headache is a common problem affecting significant proportion of patient populating. Significant proportion of patients with chronic headache has associated abnormal MRI findings.</p> Pradeep Shankarrao Patil, Niranjan Bapu saheb Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/815 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound Criteria for the Depiction of Benign or Malignant Thyroid Nodule by Using Tissue Diagnosis as Reference Standard http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/818 <p><strong>Background: </strong>High-resolution ultrasonography is a very sensitive imaging modality for examination of the thyroid gland and associated abnormalities. It is noninvasive, widely available, less expensive, and does not use any ionizing radiation. Further, real time ultrasound imaging helps to guide diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures (FNAC and Biopsy) in cases of thyroid disease. Objectives: To study the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound criteria’s for the depiction of benign or malignant thyroid nodule and their correlation with cytology or histopathology. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study included 50 patients who were referred for ultrasound with clinical suspicion of thyroid lesions. The ultrasound diagnosis was compared to the final diagnosis made on cytology or histopathology, and the ability of ultrasound in differentiating between a benign or malignant lesion was determined. <strong>Results: </strong>The ultrasound features favoring a malignant lesion included – solid consistency (Sn 92.3%; Sp48.6%; p=.009), hypoechoic echo-pattern (Sn 100%; Sp 54.5%: p=.004), micro-calcification (Sn 69.3%; Sp97.3%; p=.000), taller than wider shape (Sn 53.8%; Sp 89.1%; p=.001), ill-defined margins (Sn 61.5%;Sp 91.9%; p=.000) and internal vascularity (Sn 84.6%; Sp67.5%;p=.001). The ultrasound diagnosis was in agreement with the final diagnosis in 90% of the cases.The overall sensitivity, specificity and PPV of ultrasound in identifying a malignant lesion was 92.31%, 97.30%, and 92.31% respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound is an excellent non-invasive modality to evaluate thyroid nodules. It is a highly sensitive imaging modality for identifying and characterizing a lesion as benign or malignant.</p> Gagandeep Singh Sethi, Ritu Dhawan Galhotra, Parambir Sandhu, Kavita Saggar, Harkirat Singh Panach Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/818 Sun, 14 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Patients with Thyroid Nodules Subjected for Ultrasonography http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/837 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hashimoto’s thyroiditis cannot be distinguished from those of multinodular goitre (MNG). Basically the thyroid is enlarged bilaterally with an uneven parenchymal pattern mainly showing decrease in the normal echogenicity. The ultrasound appearance of Hashimoto’s thytoiditis is that of a diffuse glandular enlargement with irregular lobulated margins. There is a generalised decrease in parenchymal reflectivity with a typical lobulated pattern due to highly reflective fibrous bands which separate the echo poor areas. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 cases of thyroid lesions diagnosed by ultrasound were included in the study. The ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography examination was done in the department of Radiology .These 80 cases which were found to have thyroid lesion on ultrasound were subjected to FNAC for confirmation of ultrasound finding and establishment of final diagnosis. <strong>Results:</strong> Study showed no vascularity (TYPE1) and (TYPE2) peripheral vascularity in 100% of benign nodules, none of the malignant nodules showed type 1 and 2 vascularity. 95.2% of benign nodules showed TYPE 3 vascularity and 4.76% of cases were malignant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>40% of the benign nodules showed intra nodular vascularity (TYPE4) and 60% of the cases were malignant.</p> Veeresh Hanchinal, Vishwanath S Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/837 Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasonography and Ultrasound Elastography in the Evaluation Thyroid Nodules http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/838 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thyroid nodules are commonly encountered, and thyroid cancers are among the commonest head and neck malignancies. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are extremely important in the definitive management of such patients.Ultrasonography is widely used first line of investigation in a patients suspected with thyroid mass which will help to differentiate diffuse thyroid diseases from nodular thyroid disease,recent advances in ultrasound technology and the introduction of Ultrasound Elastography have reportedly improved the accuracy in the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 cases of thyroid lesions diagnosed by ultrasound were included in the study. The ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography examination was done in the department of Radiology. These 80 cases which were found to have thyroid lesion on ultrasound were subjected to FNAC for confirmation of ultrasound finding and establishment of final diagnosis. <strong>Results:</strong> Our study showed 37.5% (30) of cases were diffuse thyroid disease and 62.5%(50) were nodular diseases. Out of 30 diffuse thyroid disease 15% were colloid goiter, 17.5% were hashimoto’s thyroiditis,5% were De Quervain’s thyroiditis. Our study also showed 100% of the hyperechoic nodules were benign, 77.77% hypoechoic nodules were benign and 22.22% hypoechoic nodules were malignant, 100% isoechoic nodules were benign and 100% of cystic nodules were benign. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound helps us to know clearly whether the lesion is solitary or multiple. It helps to clearly differentiate between solid and cystic lesions. The diffuse heterogenous echotexture of the gland with characteristic hypoechoic nodules clearly helps us in diagnosing Hashimotos thyroiditis. In addition, ultrasound is very useful to differentiate benign lesions from malignant thyroid lesions in most of the cases.</p> Veeresh Hanchinal, Vishwanath S Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/838 Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrum of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Color Doppler Findings in Peripheral Neuropathy http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/867 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Available diagnostic modalities for peripheral neuropathies e.g clinical assessment, electrodiagnostics, skin and nerve biopsy has certain limitations. The role of imaging is very limited. Purpose of this study is to evaluate findings in various peripheral neuropathies on ultrasonography and color Doppler. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Fifty adult patients of either sex with already diagnosed peripheral neuropathies were evaluated with high resolution ultrasound and color doppler of the relevant peripheral nerves and were compared with age and sex matched fifty healthy adult controls. <strong>Results: </strong>The study included patients with various peripheral neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, leprosy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, and peripheral nerve trauma). There was a significant increase in cross sectional area and change in echogenicity of median nerve at carpal tunnel in carpal tunnel syndrome (p&lt;0.05). Multiple nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy and leprosy patients showed increased cross sectional area and altered echogenicity as compared to controls (P &lt; 0.05). Patients with CIDP showed diffusely hyperechoic peripheral nerves. Sonography in peripheral nerve trauma showed significant hyperechogenicity and increased vascularity on doppler at site of trauma with precise localization. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>High resolution ultrasonography with color doppler showed greater extent of quantitative and qualitative alterations in peripheral nerves in various peripheral neuropathies.&nbsp; USG has the potential to complement other diagnostic investigations such as the nerve conduction study in polyneuropathies and can objectively measure nerve damage in some focal neuropathies. It is easily available and has the potential to become the first modality for screening or evaluation of peripheral neuropathies.</p> B.L. Kumawat, Manisha Sharma, C.M. Sharma, Aakanksha Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/867 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ultrasound in Analysis of Vocal Cord Movements in Comparison with Laryngoscopy http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/868 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasound is a real time, dynamic imaging modality, useful in evaluating the movement of anatomical structures. It is a non-invasive and cheap imaging technique which can be utilized as a primary tool/ as an alternate tool to laryngoscopy in assessing the vocal cord movements in suspected cases of Vocal cord palsy. <strong>Aims &amp; objectives: </strong>To evaluate the utility of ultrasound in diagnosis of vocal cord movements in suspected cases of Vocal cord palsy. To compare the results with fibreoptic laryngoscopy findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A prospective comparative study done on 73 clinically suspected cases of vocal cord palsy. Vocal cord movements were assessed on ultrasound and results were compared with findings of flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 73 cases of clinically suspected vocal cord palsy, 42 cases were diagnosed with reduced / absent movement of vocal cords on ultrasound. In 3 cases ultrasound was not able to diagnose vocal cords palsy due to excessive laryngeal cartilage calcification. Unilateral vocal cord palsy was noted in 36 patients and bilateral vocal cord palsy in 9 patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound is reliable, non-invasive and cheap modality to asses vocal cord movements. Compared to fibreoptic laryngoscopy it has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing vocal cord palsy.</p> Nagaraj Murthy, Dimple Bhatia Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/868 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Role of CT Colonographyin the Evaluation of Colorectal Carcinoma http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/869 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Colorectal carcinoma is one of the commonest diseases in the adult. The advancement in the technology of CT scan has offered CT colonography which explores the colonic luminal pathology. The present study is done to evaluate the role of CT colonography in colorectal carcinoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The prospective study was carried out in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, over a period of 24 months. A total of 162 patients with colorectal carcinoma were selected and the disease characterization was studied using CT colonography. CT was carried out with GE (General Electric) Light speed VCT 64 slice MDCT machine. <strong>Results:</strong>The study group comprises of 106 male and 56 female patients. Highest numbers of cases (25%) were in the 6th decade of life. The commonest presenting complaints were bleeding per rectum and constipation. The rectum being the most frequently involved colonic segment in 38% of cases. Focal, asymmetric, marked (&gt;2 cm) wall thickening of colon with heterogeneous (mixed) attenuation pattern was seen commonly. Majority of the cases presented with periserosal fat invasion and internal iliac nodal group involvement. Liver is the commonest organ for distant metastasis. Four cases of malignant solitary sigmoid colon polyps and two cases of malignant rectal polyps were also identified. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT colonography is effective in characterisation of the malignant colorectal growth and identifying adenomatous polyps thus can be effectively used for the early detection, staging and screening of colorectal malignancy.</p> Sabari Arasu P, Arun Kumar S, Kaviyarasy T, Dhivya R, Sangeetha Devi P.S Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/869 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrocephalus - The Cross Sectional Radiological Study of Epidemiology, Classification and Causes http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/870 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study evaluating the efficacy of Computed Tomography in the diagnosis of Hydrocephalus was done on 74 cases. All the cases were studied on a Siemens Somatom ARC Computed Tomography system which is a modified Third generation machine. Factors of 130 KV and 70 MA were a constant for all cases and factors of 110 KV and 50 MA were used for infants. Demographic profile and radiological parameters were studied and tabulated on Microsoft excel file. <strong>Results: </strong>Tubercular meningitis was the commonest cause of hydrocephalus, with aqueduct, stenosis and tumours as the second important causes. All patients with possible hydrocephalus should have an initial, complete noncontrast CT scan with serial sections from vertex down through the upper cervical region to i. demonstrate size of all ventricles and cisterns to help rule out low lying tumors, the Chiari I and Chiari II malformation. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT is a valuable tool with a very high diagnostic sensitivity and helps in early detection of hydrocephalus and its management.</p> Sandeep Ballal, Annitha Elavarasi Jayamohan, Suresh V, Ajit Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/870 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Radiological Study to Establish the Accuracy of MRCP over USG & CT in Diagnosing the Case of Obstructive Jaundice http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/871 <p><strong>Background: </strong>MRCP is a relatively new MR imaging technique that has revolutionized the imaging of biliary and pancreatic ducts. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted in the department of Radio Diagnosis, MGMC&amp;RI, for a period of 2 years. Thirty three patients of obstructive jaundice were included in the study. Ultrasonography followed by MRCP and then CT were done in all the patients. Three experienced radiologists reviewed the images separately and evaluated the cause and site of obstruction in these patients. The accuracy of each modality was analyzed statistically and correlation was made with the surgical findings or histopathological reports. <strong>Results:</strong> MRCP had an accuracy of 97% in detecting the cause of obstructive jaundice while CT &amp; USG had a accuracy of 82% &amp; 67% respectively. In diagnosing the site of obstruction MRCP had a accuracy of 100% while CT had 88% and USG 55%. The performance of MRCP when compared to CT and USG was statistically more significant (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and to know the cause, site and extent of the lesion MRCP being a non invasive, non ionizing procedure seems to be a better choice over other radiological procedures like USG, CT or ERCP.</p> Annitha Elavarasi Jayamohan, Antony Jean, Prakash Manikka Lakshmanan, Ajit Kumar Reddy Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/871 Sun, 04 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Potential of First Trimester Ultrasonography in Detection of Fetal Congenital Structural Malformations- A Retrospective Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/912 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Early detection of malformation is tremendously improved with improvement in imaging technology. Yet in a developing country like India majority of pregnant women are not privileged to get timely diagnosis. Present study aimed to assess the potential of first trimester ultrasonography in detection of fetal congenital structural malformations. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All pregnant women had anomaly scan and women with fetal structural malformations were included. All patients were screened for congenital anomalies by 11-14 week ultrasound scan (first trimester anomaly scan) as part of routine prenatal care. Second trimester scan was conducted at 18 to 22 weeks gestation. The results of the first trimester anatomic survey were correlated with second trimester target scan to evaluate value of first trimester scan for early detection of anomalies. <strong>Results: </strong>It showed that out of 924 pregnant women 472 fall under high risk category and 452 under low risk category. Out of 924 women subjected to First Trimester Anomaly Scan 18 patients demonstrated some sort of congenital anomaly whereas Mid Gestation Ultrasound Scan revealed 9 women out of 892 who gave birth to babies with congenital anomaly. Overall only 3% pregnant women revealed congenital anomalies among babies. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is immense need for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the field of prenatal detection of congenital malformation. Earlier detection of fetal structural malformations would allow for earlier antenatal referral to a tertiary care facility and coordination of care among appropriate subspecialists. Focus and emphasis should aim at detection of malformation earlier than 12 weeks owing to the very unique and clear facts that first trimester detection leads to easy termination of pregnancy and lessening of women’s mental, physical, and psychological trauma.</p> G Rajesh, Waseem Akhtar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/912 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment ofGender Determination: By Morphometric Dimensions ofthe Maxillary Sinuses and Computed Tomography http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1014 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gender determination is considered to be an important step inidentification.For gender determination, anthropometric assessment is one of the main forensic assessments.<strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to investigate whether the morphometric dimensions of the maxillary sinuses can be used for gender determination.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 147 patients from the age group of 20-70 were included in the study.Out of which 85(57.8%) were males and 62(42.2%) were females, and who came for head and paranasalsinusComputed Tomography (CT) scan in the duration of one year from June 2018 to April 2019 and who had complaints of head ache and suspected sinus diseases but without any pathological radiographic findings or history of trauma and in whom the CT Scans were considered normal as per the consultant radiologists.To obtain the Multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT)images, an MDCT Siemens Somatom Definition AS 64 SLICE machine with a high-resolution bone algorithm, 233 mm field of view, 120 kV, 395 mA, scanning time of 6.5 seconds and slice thickness of 1.0 mm was used to obtain the axial images.<strong>Results:</strong>The proportion of correctly identified females with right and left sinus was 74.2 % and 77.4% while using right and left sinus 76.5% and78.8% of males were correctly identified respectively. The combined proportion of correctly identified gender was 75.5% using the right sinus and 78.2% using the left sinus.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>All the parameters were equally and statistically significant in gender determination in our study making imaging of maxillary sinus on CT scan as an important anatomical structure as an aid in forensic anthropology for criminal investigations. Based on the multiple regression analysis a formula is also derived to easily and conveniently calculate the gender based on the values of maxillary sinus obtained on CT scan.</p> Dilip Shah, Pradeep Shankarrao Patil, Prithviraj L. Jadhav, Rajat Agnihotri, Neelaja Patil Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1014 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Grading Of Fatty Liver on Ultrasound and Its Correlation with Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1015 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To correlate the grades of fatty liver on ultrasound with degree of alterations in lipid profile and liver enzymes.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The prospective, analytical observational studywas conducted at a super specialtyhospital based in south Indiain 122 patients diagnosed with fatty liver.The subjects underwent ultrasonography, and lipid profile and liver enzyme tests as a part of clinical evaluation. Those with positive viral markers and on drugs altering the various biochemical parameters were excluded. A radiologist graded the fatty liver into 3 grades- grade I, II and III using the visual grading system. Statistical analyses were carried outto determine the correlation between the grades of fatty liver and alterations in lipid profile and liver enzymes.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of the 122 selected participants, 51 subjects were categorizedas grade I, 63 as grade II and 8 as grade III fatty liver. There was statistically significant variation in AST, ALT and GGT among different grades (P value &lt; 0.05).However, no significant variation in the BMI was found among patients with different grades of fatty liver.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and GGT concentrations with the increase in the grades of fatty liver by ultrasonography might be useful in predicting theinflammation and progression of the disease. This preliminary finding may be useful for developing a non-invasive method for early diagnosis and predicting the disease prognosis.</p> Anand K, Amulya Sundari V, Ashok Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1015 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Transrectal Ultrasound Prostate Volume Correlation with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Level in Patients with Prostatic Enlargement in Portharcourt http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1016 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prostatic enlargement is common among aging men which is associated elevation of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Prostatic enlargement could be due to benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis, or prostatic neoplasms.<strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study is to determine transrectal ultrasound prostate volume (TPV) correlation with serum prostate specific antigen level in patients with prostatic enlargement. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>One hundred and forty-three (143) males referred for ultrasound prostate evaluation with clinical diagnosis of prostatic enlargement that fulfill the study criteria were studied, using LOGIQ P6 PRO GE Healthcare machine fitted with 10MHz transrectal probe while the PSA level was estimated by Enzyme Immunoassay using DIAGNOSTIC INC PSA KIT.&nbsp; The blood samples were collected before the ultrasonic evaluation. The anterio-posterior, transverse and cranio-caudal diameters of the prostate gland were obtained and the prostate volume generated by the ultrasound machine.&nbsp; The data collected was analyzed using SPSS windows version 21.0 statistical software. Correlation between variables was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis.<strong>Results:</strong>The mean (Mean<u>+</u>SD) transrectalProstate Volume (TPV) and serum PSA levels were 66.13<u>+</u>30.43cm<sup>3 </sup>and 8.50<u>+</u>3.95ng/ml respectively. Pearson’s Correlation between TPV and Serum PSA level gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.809 (<em>pvalue</em> of 0.01). TPV and Serum PSA concentrations did not show correlation with Body Mass Index.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed a significant correlation between transrectal prostate volume and serum PSA concentration in patients with prostate enlargement.&nbsp; Therefore, TPV can be used as alternative method of estimating serum PSA concentration where direct measurement is absent.</p> Robinson Ebbi Donald Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1016 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Survival Analysis on the Risk Factors of Women’s with Cervical Cancer: A Case Study at Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1017 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death.&nbsp; The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the survival time of cervical cancer patients in Black Lion Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Black Lion Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Information on patients enrolled from December 2014 and had at least one follow-up until January 2017 time period in oncology center was used in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Log-Rank tests were used to compare the survival experience of different category of predictors. Semi-Parametric survival models were employed to examine the effect of explanatory variables on survival times.<strong>Results:</strong>A total of 518 cervical cancer patients in Black Lion Hospital were included in the study. Out of 518 cervical cancer patients, 49.04% were live in urban area and 50.96 % were live in rural area. The instantaneous risk of death for urban place of residence is 2.04 times the instantaneous risk of death for rural place of residence. The instantaneous risk of death for patients with hypertension has 2.15 greater risk of death than those patients without hypertension. Improved the survival of patients was an integral part of controlling cervical cancer.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>It has been found that 16% of the considered patients were died and the remaining 84% were censored at the end of the study. The median survival time of cervical cancer patients was 31months after diagnosis. The covariates those are more significant for cervical cancer patients are age, place of residence, hypertension, FIGO stage, histological type, and histological grade and HIV status.</p> Dessalew Sheferaw Yesuf, Tigist Jegnaw Lakew, Kasim Mohammed Yesuf Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1017 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Syrinx and Its Associations: A Retrospective Study http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1019 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Syrinxis described as a cavitary enlargement of the spinal cord. It is a common reason for neurosurgical referral. The aetiology of syrinx is multiple andit is associated with other brain and spinal cord conditions,while some are not associated with any other conditions. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We retrospectively collected data of cases diagnosed with syrinx in the department of radiodiagnosis in Rajarajeswari Medical college, Bangalore and studied the conditions associated with syrinx. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 37 cases were analysed. The spinal cord levelsmost commonly associated with syrinx were C5, C6, T1 and&nbsp; L1 vertebral levels. Arnold Chiari malformation type 1 was the most common condition associated with syrinx. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded from the present study that syrinx was more common in males than females with mean age of presentation of 36 years. The cervical spinal cord level was most commonly involved followed by thoracic and lumbar spinal cords. ACM type 1 was the most common associated condition. It becomes important for radiologist to look for syrinx in cases diagnosed with associated conditions, so that subtle and mild forms of syrinx are not missed and their growth or expansion in spinal cord be evaluated in follow up MRI studies.</p> Javaji Ravi Prasad, Harsha U, Nidhi B Raj Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1019 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Analysis of USG Findings in Dengue Fever as a Screening Modality http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1064 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue fever is a common public health issue in India, This study was conducted to asses value of ultrasound findings insero positive dengue cases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Retrospective study of 81 patients of various age groups of both male and female, serologically positive for dengue fever was conducted between April-2018 to Dec-2018. These patients were referred for ultrasound of abdomen .Abdominal sonography was performed with convex probe and high frequency variable linear probes after 4-6 hours fasting .Various ultrasound finding were analyzed. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 81 Patients Edematous gall bladder wall thickening/ edema seen in 71 (87.6%), most common findings, followed by ascites in 41 (50.6%) and Splenomegaly 17(20.9%), Hepatomegaly 15(18.5%) and pleural effusion 26 (32%).Ultrasound abdomen findings were normal in 10 (12.3%).In these Patients the platelet count&nbsp; was more than 150,000..Patients with platelets count up to 80000 showed&nbsp; GB wall thickening / wall edema,ascites, pleural effusion ,hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Pericardial effusion was not seen in our study. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound abdomen findings of GB wall thickenings,GB wall edema, Pleural effusion, Ascites, Splenomegaly &amp; Hepatomegaly strongly indicates diagnosis of dengue fever.These USG findings suggestive of severity of DF, which requirs proper managmeent.Subsequate USG examination helps to monitor the response to the treatment.</p> Vivek Gupta, Pranav Kumar Dave, R Mishra, M Jain, M Bapat, M Tilgam, A Patidar, J Verma, C Dave Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1064 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Utility of CT Scanin Patients with Deviated Nasal Septum http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1065 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nasal septum pathology is highly prevalent and septoplasty is a commonly developed surgery. The present study was conducted to assess utility of CT scan in patients with deviated nasal septum. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted on 82 patients reported to Department of Radio diagnosis L N medical college and J k Hospital Bhopalfor CT scan of PNS which were diagnosed with DNS. The CT scans were performed with GE 128 slice CT scanner machine. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 82 patients, males were 52 and females were 30. Age group 11-20 years had 32, 21-30 years had 20, 31-40 years had 15, 41-50 years had 12 and 51-60 years had 3 patients. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Common features in patients were headache in 41, nasal obstruction in 74, facial pain in 33, hyposmia in 27 and epistaxis in 11. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). There are six types of deviated nasal septum. Common type were type V in 21, type IV in 20, type VI in 16, type III in 9, type II in 6 and type I in 5. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT scan is useful tool in diagnosis of types of deviated nasal septum.</p> Vivek Gupta, Pranav Kumar Dave, M Tilgam, A Patidar, P Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1065 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Efficacy and Usefulness of Doppler in Patients with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1074 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the commonest complications of pregnancy. Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and small for gestational age (SGA) babies are pathological conditions strongly related to development and function of utero-placental and feto-placental circulations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of this new technology in patients with PIH and to evaluate the ability to predict the perinatal outcome.<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study group comprised of 30 pregnant patients between 28 to 36 weeks of pregnancy clinically diagnosed as PIH. Control group comprised of 30 patients with 28 to 36 weeks with no clinically detectable hypertension. Ultrasound examination and Doppler study was done. Colour Doppler and spectral Doppler were done in the same sitting. The Umbilical artery reflecting the foetoplacental circulation, the uterine artery reflecting the uteroplacental circulation and foetal middle cerebral artery reflecting foetal responses and adaptation to changes in the intrauterine growth retardation were studied. The wave form of uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery was assessed with PHILIPS Envisor Doppler machine.<strong>Results:</strong>Normal S/D ratio was seen 56.7% (no=17), who had no REDV and no AEDV. They had 6.6% (no=2) still births, 6.6% (no=2) low birth weight babies and 43.3% (no= 13) had normal birth weight babies. In study group (PIH) of 30 patients, normal PI was seen in 36.7% patients and increased PI was seen in 63.3% patients. Of the patients with increased PI, 23.3% patients showed still-births, 23.3% patients had low birth babies.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Doppler velocimetry of the feto-placental and utero-placental circulation• has great potential in helping the managing obstetrician to identify the PIH patients with fetus at serious risk, which warrants urgent delivery by active intervention. It is helpful in distinguishing the serious patients from those where the approach can be a bit more conservative.</p> Naresh Kumar, Rajesh K Badhan, Munish Kumar Garg Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1074 Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Heart Disease Using Radionuclidemyocardial Perfusion Imaging http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1075 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The clinical utility of radiotracer study of heart in nuclear cardiology must be considered in the context of other cardiac diagnostic procedures. Accordingly.this study aimed is to determine the pattern of heart diseases detected by technetium Sestamibi (Tc<sup>99m</sup>).<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study included Fifty patients 34male (68%), 16female(32%), age mean <em>± </em>SD (57<em>± </em>10 years) and ranged from 39-82 years, were referred for MPI&nbsp; were presenting as known or suspected ischemic heart disease , it was done in Elnilen diagnostic center nuclear medicine department. Each patient underwent Tc<sup>99m </sup>-sestamibi studies, which were performed according to one day protocol.<strong>Results:</strong>Fifty patients&nbsp; were enrolled in the study, The&nbsp; results of this study revealed that&nbsp; EF , and weight as 54.16, 69.92 respectively<strong>,</strong>Distribution of Uptake and Viability of the patients, Poor Uptake(24%), Normal(40%), No (8%), Reduce (28%) and&nbsp; No (54%), Small(6%), Normal(40%)<strong>, </strong>SPECT images revealed ischemia of the apical, anteroapical, apicoseptal, and septal walls. Gated SPECT illustrated significant deterioration in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), in seven cases wall motion, and systolic wall thickening obtained with rest gated SPECT.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The MPI has an excellent value to detect coronary stenosis,The diagnosis of coronary artery disease remains common application of MPI, but it is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of acute MI, risk stratification after infarction, and assessment of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease.</p> Mohamed Yousef Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1075 Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Role of MRI in Assessment of Myelopathy http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1116 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Myelopathy is a disease of spinal cord which can lead to significant neurological morbidity. MRI because of better soft tissue differentiation, not only helps in determining the cause of myelopathy but also plays significant role in their management..<strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was done on 80 patients in our institute between June&nbsp; 2017 to October 2018. All patients having complaints of pain in the back with sensory or motor dysfunction or both, having suspicion of myelopathy, referred to the department of Radio-diagnosis for MRI spine evaluation. MRI scan performed on 1.5 Tesla PHILIPS ACHIEVA machine, standard surface &amp; body coils were used for acquisition of images. <strong>Results: </strong>In this study out of 80 patients of myelopathy, 65% were due to cord compression and 35% were due to non compressive causes. Involvement of cervical spine was more common than the thoraco-lumbar spine. Most common condition associated with compression of the cord was Degenerative spine disease followed by Potts spine and trauma. Under the causes of Non compressive myelopathy- Myelitis was the most common cause, which was seen most in Isolated cases followed by associations with Multiple sclerosis and Neuromyelitisoptica. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI is the mainstay modality to diagnose spinal cord pathologies.Degenerative spine disease was the most common cause of compressive myelopathy and Myelitis was the most common cause of Non compressive myelopathy. Early diagnosis using MRI improves the prognosis of myelopathy.</p> Ashish Shukla, Prashant U Titare, Varsha Rote Kaginalkar, Ajay Vare, Anjali Pawar, Vandana Bhatt Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research http://aijournals.com/index.php/ajmrr/article/view/1116 Fri, 06 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000