Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research (AJMRR)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Bi-annual peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in radiology and medical imaging. <br><strong>Online ISSN: 2347-338X | Print ISSN: 2347-3371</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2347-3371 MRI Evaluation of Central Nervous System in Childhood Developmental Delay <p><strong>Background: </strong>Developmental delay is defined as significant delay (more than two standard deviations below the mean) in one or more developmental domains. Developmental delay does not represent a diagnosis, but a term used in different clinical presentations and prognosis, which covers a wide range of etiologies including genetic, metabolic, endocrine, vascular, mal formation syndromes, traumatic, infections, toxins &amp; environmental causes. Careful evaluation and investigation can reveal a cause. Aim of our study to observe efficacy of MRI brain in children with developmental delay and to categories it’s various causes. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Record based cross sectional study was done in 200 children, who presented to department of pediatrics with developmental delay and subsequently underwent MRI study.<strong>Results:</strong>Out of 200 patients 145(72.5%) shows abnormal MRI findings. Most common MRI diagnosis of developmental delay was neurovascular insult (29.5%) followed by structural malformation (21%), infective/inflammatory disorder (17%), metabolic disorders (2.5%) and neoplastic (2.5%). Neurovascular insult was commonly found in 1-5 years of age.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI is the most useful investigation in patients clinically suspicious for developmental delay and can help in diagnosing the underlying etiology. Other than no of lesions and predominant localization of lesions, encephalomalacia, gliosis, atrophy, structural malformations and neoplastic lesions, ventriculomegaly,micro or megalencephaly are useful features to diagnose underlying cause of developmental delay.</p> Abhishek. S Bhautik Kapadia Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 1 8 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.1 Lung Manifestation of Collagen Vascular Disease in HRCT <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim of this paper was to evaluate the thoracic manifestations associated with the Connective tissue disorders, with an emphasis on interstitial and airway disease pattern on the High Resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The present study was conducted for a period of one year. A total of 50 patients with various connective tissue disorders having respiratory complaints were evaluated. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>During the study period 50 patients (80%females and 20%males) underwent evaluation. Cough and dyspnea were&nbsp; the most common presenting symptoms. Variety of thoracic abnormalities weredetected in 67 (95%) cases. Most common abnormality detected on HRCT was interstitial fibrosis/interstitial lung disease present in (60%) cases. Most common parenchymal abnormalities seen were reticulations (61.4%), ground glass opacification (40%), mosaic attenuation (32.8%) and honeycombing (24.3%). Airway abnormalities seen were bronchiectasis (48.5%), emphysema (12.8%), and ground glass nodules (2.8%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Interstitial lung disease is the most common pulmonary manifestation among patients with connective tissue disorders, and early detection and prompt treatment is expected to improve the outcome.</p> Jagruti Kalola Anjana Trivedi Hiral Happani Mohit Chauhan Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 9 13 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.2 Needle Directed Pulse Spray Pharmacomechanical Thrombolysis for Acute Thrombosis of Dialysis Fistulas – Technique, Efficacy and Short Term Follow UP <p><strong>Background: </strong>The incidence of end stage renal disease is on the rise and most of these patients are undergoing dialysis either through tunnelled/non tunnelled dialysis catheters or through arteriovenous fistulas/grafts. The dialysis grafts and fistulas have limited durability of about 3 years and are more prone for thrombosis and stenosis. Catheter directed interventions are successful in establishing flow in most of the thrombosed fistulas, but require dedicated Cath lab and tertiary care centre. Needle directed thrombolysis is a novel economical, safe technique for thrombolysis of dialysis fistulas and grafts. The aim of the studt is to review the technique, safety, efficacy of needle directed pulse spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis of dialysis fistulas and grafts with short term follow up. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective observational study done in department of Radio diagnosis, Narayana medical college, Nellore. Selectively 25 patients with thrombosed AV fistulas were referred from nephrology OPD for needle directed thrombolysis to our department from December 2018 to May 2019. The procedure was performed on OPD basis in ultrasound procedure room. Regular Doppler follow up of patients is done up to 6 months. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of twenty five cases about seventeen cases (68%) were successful in achieving adequate recanalization in single session. four cases (16%) required repeat sessions of thrombolysis and were successful in second attempt. In four cases (16%) there was failure in attaining adequate recanalization due to marked multisegment attenuation/flow limiting stenosis of the draining vein. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Needle directed Pulse spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis is a novel technique, which can be done bedside, under portable ultrasound guidance and is an economical procedure as no intervention hardware is required. Continuous monitoring allows procedure to be stopped at the earliest once there is optimal recanalization, minimizing the systemic side effects of thrombolytic agents.</p> Geda Anusha Yugandhar Samireddypalle Ranjith Kumar Vulchi Sagar Dembla Pavithira Annamalai Sabarinath Eada Amitha Vikrama K S Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 14 20 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.3 Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Stenosis of Dialysis Arteriovenous Fistulas <p><strong>Background: </strong>The incidence of end stage renal disease is on the rise and most of these patients are undergoing dialysis either through tunneled/non tunneled dialysis catheters or through arteriovenous fistulas. The dialysis grafts and fistulas have limited durability of about 3 years and are more prone for thrombosis and stenosis, resulting in AVF dysfunction. As the number of access sites for dialysis is limited, percutaneous endovascular management by fistuloplasty has become the accepted first line of management to increase the lifespan of these fistulas.This article discusses a series of cases of AVF dysfunction secondary to draining vein stenosis managed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, their outcome and short term follow up till 3 months. The aim of the study is to review the role of percutaneous endovascular management of stenosis of dialysis fistulas, its indications, safety, efficacy and short term patency. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective observational study done in department of Radio diagnosis, Narayana medical college, Nellore. About 20 cases were performed in our institution from December 2018 to August 2019. All these cases were done in angio suite after proper dialysis through temporary catheter. Post procedure doppler was done to evaluate the improvement in flow rate of these fistulas. <strong>Results: </strong>Seventeen cases were successful with immediate restoration of optimal flow rate during dialysis. (One case developed acute thrombosis of the fistula within 24 hours post procedure, which was successfully treated by needle directed thrombolysis with good patency at three month follow up). In two cases, there was failure of the procedure as the tight stenotic segment could not be negotiated. One case had early re-stenosis of the draining vein which required repeat session of fistuloplasty within one month with occlusion of the draining vein on three month follow up. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Fistuloplasty is a minimally invasive percutaneous procedure with established safety and efficacy to restore the normal function of dialysis fistulae/grafts. The main aim of the procedure is to restore a diameter of the draining vein adequate for optimal flow rate during dialysis. Careful patient selection is required for increasing the success rate of the procedure. Repeat sessions of angioplasty is offered for re-stenosis to increase the lifespan of fistulas. Stent placement is usually avoided except for recurrent focal stenosis in precious fistulas.</p> Jagadeesh Pasupuleti Yugandhar Samireddypalle Saripudi S V N P Manikanta Vijay Guntaka Srujana Amitha Vikrama KS Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 21 27 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.4 Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients with Migraine <p><strong>Background: </strong>Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder. Headache accounts for 4.4% of all consultations in general practice, approximately 5% of all medical admissions to hospital, and approximately 20% of neurology outpatient consultations. Hence, the present study was undertaken for assessing the MRI findings in patients with migraine. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 5 patients with migraine headache were included in the present study. Complete demographic details of all the patients were obtained. Thorough clinical examination was carried out and routine hematological and other biochemical investigations were also done. Patients underwent MRI investigations. Imaging was performed using a head coil with patient in a supine position. All the MR imaging examination were performed on a Seimen’s Avento 1.5 Tesla Magnet MR System, slice thickness was 4-5mm with an inter slice gap of 0.5mm. MR imaging findings were compiled as per proforma and subjected to analysis using SPSS software. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 5 migraine patients, significant abnormal MRI findings were present in 40 percent of the patients. One patient showed T2and T2 FLAIR Hyperintensities in subcortical white matter in frontal region. In the second patient with migraine, MRI finding revealed an area of diffusion restriction in left basal ganglia region which was hypointense on T1, T2 FLAIR and Hyperintense on T2 consistent with chronic infarct. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Migraine headache patient occasionally have abnormal MRI findings to explain their headaches. Neuroimaging of headache sufferers in the general population yields few findings of clinical importance.</p> Amarjit Kaur Simmi Bhatnagar Navkiran Kaur Dimple Mittal Ishita Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 28 31 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.5 Evaluation of Parenchymal Thyroid Diseases Using Ultrasonography <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders seen in all age groups. The present study was conducted to determine parenchymal thyroid diseases using Ultrasonography (USG) in adult patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted&nbsp; &nbsp;on 140 adult patients. Patients were divided into five groups such as Group I (normal); Group II had first detected, early untreated Hashimoto disease (EH); Group III comprised of chronic Hashimoto patients that are under treatment and/or follow up (H); Group IV had multinodular parenchymal hyperplasia (M); and Group V had nodular hyperplasia with Hashimoto (HM). They underwent spectral Doppler ultrasound and acoustic radiation force impulse using Siemens ACUSON S2000 machine. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean RI in group I was 0.54, in group II was 0.56, in group III was 0.42, in group IV was 0.48 and in group V was 0.49, mean AT in group I was 26.2, in group II was 25.3, in group III was 71.3, in group IV was 46.2 and in group V was 45.1, mean SWV in group I was 1.54, in group II was 1.72, in group III was 1.20, in group IV was 1.46 and in group V was 1.65. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Authors found that resistivity index, acceleration time and shear wave velocity together are reliable for differential diagnosis of parenchymal thyroid diseases.</p> Naveen BS Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 8 1 32 35 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.6 Von Hippel-Lindau Disease (VHL): A Rare Radiological Case Report <p>Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutation in the VHL tumor suppression gene located on chromosome 3. The presented case was a 13 years male patient who initially presented to our hospital with chief complaints of Weakness in&nbsp; b/l lower limbs, Low backache, Right-sided flank pain. On Physical examination there was a lump in right lumbar region– which was firm on palpation. On imaging and histopathology examination the patient was found to have multiple simple pancreatic cysts, malignant renal lesion, retialangioma and spinal hemangioblastoma. So a diagnosis of VHL was made. Regular follow-up with imaging (ultrasound, CT, MRI) are necessary to follow the previous lesions and detect any newly-developed VHL-associate tumors. The Importance of screening is emphasized because the lesions in VHL disease are treatable.</p> Smrutismita Hota Abdul Faisal Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 8 1 36 39 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.7 Role of Computed Tomography Scan in the Assessment of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction at Bhuj, Kutch: A Prospective Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bowel obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intraluminal contents is interrupted. Obstruction can be functional or due to&nbsp; a mechanical obstruction. Now a day’s CT is considered to be the most efficacious imaging technique for determining the cause of intestinal obstruction. However, the indications for the use of CT in patients with Sub-Acute Intestinal Obstruction (SAIO) have not been fully defined. Objectives of the present study are to study the role of CT in Diagnosis of patients with suspected subacute intestinal obstruction (SAIO), to find out site &amp; cause of obstruction and to diagnose complications of obstruction. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted at Department of Radiodiagnosis, Gujarat Adani institute of Medcial Science, Bhuj, Kutch, Gujarat. Total number of 22 patients with SAIO having equivocal findings on USG was included in this study. Detailed clinical evaluation of the patients was done. Plain x-ray of abdomen in erect posture &amp; abdominopelvic ultrasound were performed before CT scan. CT scans were performed on a GE lightspeed VCT 64 slice scanner and acquired in precontrast &amp; portovenous phase at 60sec after i.v. contrast administration. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>Age of the patients in the study range between 14 to&nbsp;&nbsp; 76 years. Out of 22 were 12 male &amp; 10 female patients. On CT scan all 22 patients were found to have obstruction with 19 patients having mechanical obstruction &amp; 3 patients having pseudo obstruction secondary to appendicitis, jejunal perforation. Most common cause of SAIO was ileal stricture 38% followed by intussusceptions 23%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT is not only useful in distinguishing mechanical obstruction from paralytic ileus but also it often establishes the cause of obstruction &amp; presence of complications like strangulation &amp; perforation.</p> Ashvin Pansuriya Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 8 1 40 43 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.8 Unique Case Series of Occipital Sinus and Its Thrombosis- A Radiological Marvel <p><strong>Background: </strong>Variations of the dural venous sinuses may result in inaccurate imaging interpretation or complications during surgical approaches. One of these variations reported infrequently is the occipital sinus with an overall incidence of under 10%.When present, it may get thrombosed or become source of intracranial bleeds or pose difficulty during occipital craniotomies. Our review suggests that the thrombosis of this unique venous sinus variant is a rare condition as there are very few case reports of the same. Herein, we present a case series of persistent occipital sinus and the unusual combination of a persistent occipital sinus and its thrombosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study included 4 paediatric cases that presented with neonatal seizuressecondary to different underlying aetiologies and in retrospect had either persistent andpatent occipital sinus or a thrombosed occipital sinus. A descriptive study of the aforementioned cases was carried out. MRI scanner PHILIPS Achieva 1.5 Tesla was used for diagnosis. <strong>Results: </strong>One case had thrombosis of bilateral persistent occipital sinuses and superficial cortical veins with minimal intraventricular haemorrhage in bilateral lateral ventricles.Second case had persistent and thrombosed right occipital sinus; while two other cases had persistent but patent occipital sinuses. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>A comprehensive knowledge of cerebral venous anatomy and meticulous recognition of venous variations essentially helps when dealing with a pathology, which presents along with a particular venous variation, no matter how rare this combination is.</p> R. Harikiran Reddy Pooja Subramanya Joish Upendra Kumar B. Gurumurthy Punya. J Sahana. C. M Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 8 1 44 47 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.9 Efficacy of Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Evaluation of Knee Joint Pathologies <p><strong>Background: </strong>Imaging modalities like ultrasonography (USG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRAr) provide different form of information about the joint space and tendons related to the knee joint. Knee is the most frequently examined joint by MRI / MRAr as it is relatively non-invasive and highly accurate in assessing joint structures, saving majority of patients from non-therapeutic arthroscopy procedures. The main objective of this study is to understand the comparative role of routine MRI and MRAr in our hospital settings. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Twenty-five patients included in the study underwent both MRI and MRAr on the same day. Results were interpreted by radiologists and data was tabulated with the final diagnosis established on MRAr<strong>. Results: </strong>Efficacy of MRI was inferior in evaluation of Anterior Cruciate ligament, meniscal and capsular tears. In patients, where MRI was normal, MR Arthrography revealed significant findings. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Routine MRI misses significant outcome information when compared to MRAr in evaluation of knee joint. Hence, MR Arthrography should be done for optimal evaluation of knee joints in all patients especially those with clinicoradiological discordance.</p> Adil Ali Khan Rajul Rastogi Vijai Pratap Satish Pathak Ajay Pant Yuktika Gupta Vishakha Mittal Sarika Goel Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 8 1 48 53 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.10 CT-Scan vs MRI in Diagnosing Laryngeal Carcinoma <p><strong>Background: </strong>MRI imaging offers more sensitivity than CT to cartilage invasion but results in a high rate of false-positive studies which decreases their overall accuracy. The objective is to compare accuracy of CT scan vs MRI in the laryngeal carcinoma. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All patients have been diagnosed, with and without contrast, including neck MRI and CT. In order to prevent invalidation, before laryngeal biopsy, MRI and CT scanning have been done such that the images are not altered by peri tumorous inflammation. <strong>Results: </strong>The MRI classification was right&nbsp; for 20 out of 25 patients (80 percent) and 5 outsized cases: three cT1b lesions were pT1a and two cT1a lesions were squamous cell papilloma’s during pathological examination. CT was accurately identified in 17 out of 25 patients (68%), with 8 understated cases: 3 cT1a lesions by&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CT were pT1b, 3 cT1a lesions were pT3, and 2 tumours had not been found in the CT scan. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our research showed that MRI in preoperative stage early glottic cancer is more sensitive than CT to accurately select eligible patients for conservatory larynx surgery like super cricoid laryngectomy and cordectomy.</p> Mohammed Nizamuddin Mohammed Naseeruddin Anand Abkari Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 8 1 54 57 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.11 Role of Cross-Sectional Imaging in Tongue Lesions <p><strong>Background: </strong>The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CT and MR imaging in demonstrating lesions of the tongue. Imaging&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; can help to decide the further management of the patient, and when resection is considered, the precise extent of the lesion can be delineated, and also if organ conservation therapy can be suggested. Hence, knowing the differentiating characteristics of these lesions is essential for&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a Radiologist to narrow the differential diagnosis. The aim of the study is to describe the imaging findings of various tongue lesions, give radio-pathological correlation, and discuss the role of CT and MRI in planning further appropriate treatment, the extent of involvement of adjacent structures, resectability, postoperative reconstruction &amp; prognosis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Twenty patients with tongue masses were prospectively evaluated with CT &amp; MRI for eighteen months from June 2018 - Nov 2019. Contrast-enhanced CT axial images with reconstruction were acquired. MRI plain &amp; contrast study done. Imaging findings &amp; diagnoses were later correlated with surgical and histopathological results in all possible cases. <strong>Results: </strong>Among twenty patients, three patients revealed no abnormality; seventeen patients with findings on imaging include twelve squamous cell carcinoma, two venous malformations, two thyroglossal cysts, one hemangioma &amp; one fatty lipoma. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Few specific lesion characteristics can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Solid high-density lesions in the midline mostly represent lingual thyroids. Calcifications likely indicate goitrous transformation. Phleboliths are highly suggestive of venous malformations. Multinodular, thin-rim enhancing cystic lesions are indicative of lymphatic malformations, primarily when fluid-fluid levels are found. Fat/calcium content within a complex cystic lesion is specific for a dermoid cyst, whereas diffusion restriction within a pure cystic lesion is suggestive of an epidermoid cyst. Finally, when an injury is Trans spatial, three differentials to be considered are highly aggressive malignancies, congenital masses &amp; aggressive infections.</p> Deepthi BT Gautham M Jefrin Roy Mathew Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 8 1 58 63 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.12 Utility of CT in Head Injury- A Prospective Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Head injury is defined as an impairment in brain function as a result of mechanical force. The dysfunction can be temporary or permanent, and may or may not result in underlying structural changes in the brain. Head injuries are a major public health problem worldwide. A limited amount of neurological damage occurs at the time of impact (primary injury). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study was a prospective observational study took place in the Department of Radiology, over a 8 month period which involves all type of head injuries. Informed consent was obtained by the subjects who participated in the study. All head injury patients attending the emergency department were included, while those with no clear history of trauma as the primary event and neurologic deficit that could not be explained by head trauma were excluded. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>A total of 1000 patients underwent CT for a head injury. Table 1 shows baseline characteristics as age, gender, referred cases, type&nbsp; of injury, mode of injury and clinical features where we observed 48.2% cases were in the age group between 21-40 years with 80% of male subjects. While observing for the mode of injury, we found most of the cases falls in the category of road traffic accidents (77%) with external injury (83.5%) and loss of consciousness (63.4%) as highly observed clinical features. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed a significant association of overall CT positivity with patients sociodemographic and clinical factors such as: male gender, elderly age group (&gt;60 years), history of alcohol consumption, LOC &gt;5 min, history of vomiting, history of seizures, evidence of ear bleed, evidence of nosebleed, and GCS 12 (moderate and Severe head injury). From the results of this study, we recommend the following indications for doing CT in head injury patients: (1) CT is indicated in all patients with moderate and severe head injury (GCS <em>≤</em>12).</p> Anil Kumar Bansal Anil Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Asian Journal of Medical Radiological Research 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 8 1 64 68 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.13 Radioimaging Evaluation of Primary Bone Tumors and Tumor like Lesions <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bone tumour is relatively rarely encountered by radiologist, so sometimes it creates diagnostic difficulty. Aim over study was&nbsp;&nbsp; to determine the X-ray CT and MRI characteristics of different primary bone tumours and tumour like lesion and correlation of radiologic diagnosis with histopathologic diagnosis whenever possible. To understand the advantages and limitations of different radio-imaging techniques. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We have studied total 45 cases of primary bone tumour and tumour like lesions during study of 15 months duration in department of Radiodiagnosis, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. First radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis was given than histopathologic examination was done in all malignant and indeterminate lesions for final diagnosis. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>Out of 45 patients&nbsp;&nbsp; 21 (46.6%) were female and 24 (53.3%) were male. Benign and malignant lesions were 69% and 31% respectively. Multiple lesions were common with osteochondroma, hemangioma and multiple myeloma. Most common malignant tumour was osteosarcoma and benign tumour was osteochondroma. Pathologic fracture was seen in 6 patients but out of them 2 fractures were missed on radiograph. Skip lesions were seen in two malignant lesions which was missed on radiograph and CT but it was easily detected on MRI. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Radiography is baseline investigation for evaluation of bone tumor and tumour like lesions. Pathological fracture and matrix mineralization can be better seen on CT. MR is superior in detection skip lesion, soft tissue and marrow extension.</p> Sunil K Vatukiya Bhautik Kapadia Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 69 82 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.14 Evaluation of Gall Bladder Volume in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Real Time Ultrasonography <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Autonomic neuropathy manifests as esophageal dysfunction, nocturnal diarrhea, gall bladder dysfunction, sphincter disturbances, atonic bladder and orthostatic hypotension. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the gall bladder volume&nbsp; in fasting and post prandial state by real time ultrasound in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy controls. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In this cross sectional study, 90 subjects were included. Among them, 45 were type 2 diabetes mellitus patients included as cases and 45 age and sex matched healthy controls, who attended the Department of Medicine and Radio-diagnosis, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences &amp; Research Centre, Devanahalli, Bengaluru, Karnaaka. All the study subjects were underwent detailed general and systemic examinations. Under aseptic conditions, 3ml fasting blood samples were collected and used for the estimation of fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar. Gall bladder volume evaluation in fasting and 45 minutes post prandial (standardized fatty meal) state were done in T2DM patients and controls using real time ultrasound (GE Voluson P8 Mechine). <strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, BMI (24.78 2.31 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), FBS (160.98 27.99 mg/dl), PPBS (244.31 38.91 mg/dl), Fasting gall bladder volume (33.33 6.42 cm<sup>3</sup>), post fatty meal gall bladder volume (15.21 6.39 cm<sup>3</sup>), ejection fraction (49.34 17.29 cm<sup>3</sup>) were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients compared with healthy controls. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study results conclude that, fasting and post-prandial gallbladder volumes are indicative of gallbladder function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus showed statistically significant impairment of gallbladder function. Gallbladder function may be evaluated routinely in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.</p> KS Jagadeesh Ashwini M. Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 83 88 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.15 Current Role and Importance of USG Guided FNAC for Rapid Diagnosis of Suspicious Mass Lesions <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasound guided Fine needle aspiration is a diagnostic procedure that inserts a small needle into a suspicious mass to extract some cells which are then visualized under the microscope. The aim of the present study was to determine utility and safety of ultrasound guided FNAC in rapid evaluation of various mass lesions. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>In this study, 120 patients of age between 20-60 years with various mass lesions referred for ultrasonography guided FNAC to the department of radiodiagnosis, PDU Medical College and Civil hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat over a period of 1.5 years from 1/5/2018 to 1/11/2019are included. <strong>Results: </strong>Ultrasonography guided FNAC was performed by the same investigator, an experienced radiologist, using a real time scanner (logicP9; GE Healthcare) under standard septic precautions. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study contributes to the conclusion that USG guided FNAC can easilybe used for the aspiration of lesion of the breast, thyroid, lymph nodes, liver, lung, musculoskeletal system etc. It does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and provides rapid diagnosis of the suspicious mass lesions &amp;a firm diagnosis of impalpable lesions can be made preoperatively. Advantages of USG guided FNAC:- 1. Cost effectiveness, 2. No radiation hazards, 3. Easy to perform, 4. Dynamic evaluation of vessels, 5. Perfect real time Localization of the target lesion,</p> Maulik Jethva Parth Dholakiya Hiral Hapani Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 89 92 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.16 Role of Multi Detector Computed Tomography Cervicocerebral Angiography in Evaluation of Patients with Stroke <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stroke is the second single most common cause of death in the world causing approximately 6.7 million deaths each year. It has a greater disability impact on an individual than any other chronic disease. The aim of the study is to review the value of CTA in detection and evaluation of non-traumatic cervicocerebral vascular disease (stroke). <strong>Subjects &amp; Methods: </strong>A prospective observational study conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Kamineni Hospitals, L.B. Nagar, Hyderabad over 60 patients during April 2016 to May 2017. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 60 patients, 35(58.3%) patients had ischemic stroke, 25(41.6%) had hemorrhagic stroke. Overall stroke was seen mostly in the age group of 61-70 (28.3%) years, with a Male to female ratio of 3:2. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hypertension was the most common risk factor associated with this disease, followed by diabetes. CTA helps in accurate diagnosis, risk stratification and planning management protocols.</p> Balaji Varaprasad Mallula Jithender Reddy Chintala Srinadh Boppanna S. Annapurna Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 93 99 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.17 Role of Ultrasonography in Thyroid Nodules with Pathological Correlation <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thyroid nodule imaging had been a challenging task. Ultrasound has been the modality of choice for detection &amp; evaluation of these lesions. This study was done to identify the accuracy of various imaging features in thyroid nodules that are associated with benignity&nbsp; and malignancy and the overall accuracy of ultrasound in determining malignant nodules. The objective of the study are: (1) Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid to characterize the thyroid disease and nodules (benign vs malignant) and their morphologic evaluation. (2) Sensitivity and Specificity on the basis of radiological, and cytopathological correlation for suspected thyroid lesions. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of seventy patients (70) of both sexes and different age group, meeting the inclusion criterion, were the part of present prospective study. The cases referred to the Department of Radio-diagnosis and imaging from OPD/IPD of Saraswathi Institute of Medical sciences, Hapur from October’2017 to July’2019. An informed consent was taken from all the patients subjected for evaluation. <strong>Results: </strong>The collective data was analysed for Ultrasound findings of thyroid nodule which presented clinically as solitary or multiple thyroid nodules. The total number of cases analysed was 70 out of which 48 were found to have solitary/multinodular lesions clincally. On ultrasound evaluation out of 48 patients 38&nbsp;&nbsp; had solitary/multinodular lesions. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>High resolution sonography is recommended as the primary imaging modality in evaluation of thyroid diseases. It has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.</p> Subhash C. Sylonia Pranay Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 100 105 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.18 Intestinal Bowel Wall Thickening Analysis on MDCT: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim of this study was to determine the causes and establish the significance of bowel wall thickening on abdominal computed tomography. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Consecutive abdominal CT’s between January 2019 and December 2019 with findings of duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic ‘bowel wall thickening ‘on the formal report was reviewed retrospectively. The patients history, inpatient course &amp; subsequent colonoscopy and /or operative findings were also reviewed. <strong>Results: </strong>Of the 88 consecutive CT abdomen’s identified, infection (26.1%) and new cancer (22.7%) were the most common causes. Bowel obstruction (12.5%) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (10.2%) were relatively uncommon causes. Overall 40/88 (45%) &amp; 14/88 (15%) patients underwent subsequent colonoscopy and progressed directly to surgery respectively; of these 36/40 (90%) of the former and 14/14 (100%) of the latter showed findings similar to CT. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>When thickening of the bowel is detected with CT; pattern of the thickening, accompanying findings, history of the patient and clinical features must be evaluated together to reach prompt and correct diagnosis. All cases detected with bowel wall thickening on CT abdomen should warrant a subsequent colonoscopy.</p> Jefrin Roy Mathew A Parthasarathi BT Deepthi U Harsha Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 106 109 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.19 A Sonographic Study on Estimating of Gestational Age by Placental Thickness <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knowledge of gestational age (GA) is important because it affects clinical management in many ways. Ultrasonography has provided a safe and noninvasive means of dating a pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to assess the relationship of placental thickness with gestational age and to compare it with other sonographic parameters used to estimate gestational age. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>The study included 242 normal pregnant women who knew their last menstrual period (LMP). After taking consent, all the women underwent an ultrasound examination. During the scan, besides measuring routine biometric parameters, Placental thickness at the cord insertion was also measured. A retrospective study was designated to test the hypothesis that placental thickness in an age dependant variable and hence can predict gestational age. In the end, the predicted gestational age by placental thickness was compared with gestational age as determined by other sonographic parameters. <strong>Results: </strong>Placental thickness showed a linear progression in relation to the menstrual age. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.86(p&lt;0.001). The regression equation was formulated by regressing gestational age on the measured placental thickness. The correlation coefficient between GA-LMP and GA-USG was 0.92 as compared to 0.86 between GA-LMP and GA-PT. The standard error for other USG parameters was +2.32 compared to +2.96 for placental thickness. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Placental thickness being a fusion of menstrual age, can be used to predict the gestational age by using the regression formula. Gestational age calculated by other USG parameters is closer to menstrual age as compared to that by placental thickness. The prediction interval was slightly more when the placental thickness was used instead of other USG parameters. Placental thickness is a good alternative parameter for predicting gestational age in the second and third trimester.</p> Prashanth G Patil KM Nataraj Shaik Hussain Saheb Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 110 113 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.20 Study of Supratentorial Tumours by Computed Tomography <p><strong>Background: </strong>Brain neoplasms may be classified by the location of supratentorial, infratentorial and midline tumours. Of the supratentorial neoplasms, meningiomas are the most frequent extra-axial neoplasms. CT has become the most important diagnostic procedure in evaluating patients suspected of harboring an intracranial tumor. It is still considered the basic radiologic study since it gives specific information for the management of brain tumours and is minimally invasive. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution, features, localization and extent of supratentorial neoplasms. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>Fifty cases with symptoms of intracranial pathology and on CT found to have supratentorial tumours were studied. <strong>Results: </strong>The CT patterns of 50 supratentorial tumours were reviewed, out of which 30 cases i.e. 60%, were found to be intra- axial and 20 i.e. 40% extra-axial tumours. GBM formed the major group of the intra axial tumours i.e. 18 %, and meningiomas formed the major extra-axial tumours forming 26%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT proves to be a valuable modality of imaging in evaluating the distribution, features, localizing and assessing the extent of various intra and extra-axial tumours in the supratentorial region.</p> Prashanth G Patil KM Nataraj Shaik Hussain Saheb Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 114 121 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.21 MRI Evaluation of Painful Hip Joint <p><strong>Background: </strong>The hip is a stable, major weight-bearing joint with significant mobility. It can be involved by numerous pathological conditions like congenital and developmental, infective, arthritic, and neoplastic. Hence, early diagnosis and characterization of pathology play a vital role for the clinicians in proper management and follow-up of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the role of MRI in the diagnosis of painful hip pathology. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This study was a prospective study; total 50 patients were included in this study. This study was conducted at the Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. MR Imaging was done with a 1.5 Tesla superconductive scanner (Siemens 1.5 T Magnetom AERA MRI Machine). <strong>Results: </strong>26 out of 69 total hip joints affected (including bilateral) were diagnosed as avascular necrosis, 14 hips as osteoarthritis, and 10 hips as septic arthritis. Inflammatory arthritis was diagnosed in 7 hips, femoroacetabular impingement and an acetabular labral tear in 2 hips each. 2 cases were reported as normal hip joint and 1 case each was reported as a primary and metastatic tumor. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRI is the method of choice in characterizing the various disorders of the hip joint, and it can point out specific features leading to an accurate diagnosis of the painful hip joint.</p> Sahil Chhabra Navkiran Kaur Simmi Bhatnagar Prerna Chhabra Shivani Puri Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 122 127 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.22 Role of Corpus Callosum in Global Developmental Delay <p><strong>Background: </strong>Neuroimaging provides essential information as evidence of previous injuries, specific abnormalities that could indicate a group or a particular disease in babies with global developmental delay. The objectives is to assess the difference of corpus callosal size in various regions of the corpus callosum in cases of children with developmental delay and to know the etiology using MRI. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>My study includes 102 children between 1 to 6 years of age among which 51 children are cases having signs and symptoms of developmental delay and 51 children are controls i.e. healthy babies. They underwent MRI in the Department of Radiology, JJM Medical College, Davangere in whom corpus callosum is imaged on sagittal MR sections and its size is calculated in different regions. <strong>Results: </strong>Abnormalities of the corpus callosum like thinning and agenesis were observed in 55.5% (N=27) in the study group, and none of the patients in the control group. Partial corpus callosal agenesis was present in 3.9% of patients. Complete agenesis in 3.9% of patients. Thinning of the corpus callosum was seen in 45% of patients who were in the study group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current study suggests that corpus callosal abnormalities, including brain changes, is useful in knowing the etiology of global developmental delay.</p> K Mounisha MU Jeevika BG Mahesh B Adarsh KK Nirnay Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 128 131 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.23 Role of Early Intervention in Improving the Clinical Outcome of Acute Pancreatitis by Image Guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage of Pancreatic Collections <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess the role of image guided percutaneous drainage of acute pancreatic collections in influencing the clinical outcome&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study done in the department of intervention radiology, Narayana medical college. About 20 cases have been performed in our institution from January 2019 to December 2019. All these drainage procedures have been done under CT guidance. All these cases were strictly followed during their hospital course. Clinical success has been defined as control of sepsis and prevention of MODS without the requirement of surgical debridement. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of twenty cases, which we intervened, there was an improvement in clinical outcome in fourteen cases with the prevention of septic shock and multiorgan failure. Three cases were critically&nbsp; ill&nbsp;&nbsp; at the time of admission and succumbed to MODS (Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). The other three cases required additional surgical intervention-debridement. In which, there was increased morbidity with delayed recovery in two cases, and one case developed MODS and expired. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Image guided Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective technique to drain pancreatic collections. Adequate knowledge regarding the interpretation of imaging findings, time to intervene, adequate expertise for performing the procedure, close follow up with regular clinical assessment is vital in the management of patients in acute pancreatitis. Early and aggressive intervention helps reduce the morbidity and mortality by preventing the evolution of MODS.</p> Chittoor Ramya Sudha Yugandhar Samireddypalle Umamaheswara V Reddy Sagar Dembla Gurudutt P. Varty Ankita Sanjeev Dhawan Amitha K S Vikrama Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 132 138 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.24 A Study on Role of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Dengue Fever <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue Fever is an acute mosquito transmitted viral infection caused by one of the 4 serotypes of the genus flavivirus which has become a major international public health problem. The diagnosis of DF is often delayed owing to time taken for availability of serology test results. Moreover, this test is expensive and not widely available. Ultrasonography (USG) is a cheap, rapid and widely available non-invasive imaging method. In recent years several studies concluded that Ultrasonography of the chest and abdomen can be an important adjunct to clinical profile in diagnosis of DF and diagnosis can be made early in the course of the disease compared with other modes of diagnosis. The aim of&nbsp; the study is to demonstrate the ultrasound findings of dengue fever and also evaluate the specificity of gall bladder findings in dengue fever. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We conducted a prospective study in Govt Medical College&amp; Hospital, Srikakulam and Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, A.P. Study included 50 patients referred to the department of Radio-Diagnosis and Imaging for Ultrasonography with clinical suspicion of dengue fever, during a period of July 2018 to December 2019. USG of the abdomen, pelvis and chest was performed in&nbsp; all cases and findings were noted. Dengue serology was performed later and all the ultrasound findings were correlated with dengue serology. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>In our study of 50 patients all the patients studied were diagnosed with dengue fever based on dengue serology. In our study, 100%&nbsp; of our patients diagnosed with DF (by dengue serology) showed gall bladder wall thickening, 88% showed splenomegaly, 44% showed ascites. Pleural effusion was present in 30% of which 66.66% of pleural effusion was bilateral and the rest 33.33% was right sided. Isolated left sided pleural effusion was not found in our study. Hepatomegaly was present in 28% of our patients. In our study mortality and complications from dengue fever were not seen. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound findings in dengue fever are gall bladder wall thickening, splenomegaly, ascites, pleural effusion and hepatomegaly. In an area where DF is an epidemic, when Ultrasonography shows gall bladder wall thickening in a febrile patient with thrombocytopenia DF should be suggested On Ultrasonography, when there is gall bladder wall thickening, splenomegaly, ascites, and pleural effusion in a febrile patient with thrombocytopenia in a DF epidemic area a diagnosis of DF should be considered in a differential diagnosis until proved otherwise.</p> Y. Thathayya Naidu R. Kiranmai Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 139 143 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.25 Basics of Tunneled Dialysis Catheter Placement for Haemodialysis – Single Centre Experience <p>/non tunneled dialysis catheters or through arteriovenous fistulas/grafts. The tunneled dialysis catheters act as bridge dialysis devices during maturation period of arteriovenous fistulas/grafts and also serve as the last option for end stage renal disease patients who have exhausted all the other dialysis accesses. The aim and objective is to review the basic key concepts of internal Jugular, External Jugular and Subclavian tunneled venous catheter placement, techniques utilized, complications encountered, issues of suboptimal functioning and their management. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective observational study done in department of Radio diagnosis, Narayana medical college, Nellore. About 54 cases were performed in our institution from December 2018 to Mar 2020 (including three pediatric patients). The age range of these patients is 10 to 75 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 54 cases, one case had failed, as the guide wire didn’t pass across the brachiocephalic vein. Venogram revealed high grade stenosis of right brachiocephalic vein. There were major complications in two cases, minor complications in five cases with delayed complications in two cases. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tunneled catheters play a key role in serving as bridging devices during maturation of AVF/AVG or as the last option in chronic kidney disease patients in whom all other options have exhausted. Intervention radiologist should have good experience and an overall knowledge of the issues involved in placement of tunneled dialysis catheters, knowledge about the complications, technical issues of suboptimal functioning, for optimal catheter placement and also for improving catheter function.</p> Sabarinath Eada Uma Maheswara Reddy V Saripudi SVNP Manikanta Vijay Yugandhar Samireddypalle Pavithira Annamalai K S Amitha Vikrama Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 144 149 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.26 Evaluation of MRI Findings in Tension Type Headache Patients <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tension-type headache (TTH) has a life-time prevalence of up to 78% in the general population. It is characterized by bilateral location, pressing/tightening quality and is typically of mild to moderate intensity. Hence; the present study was conducted for evaluation of MRI findings in tension type headache patients. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A total of 12 patients with tension type headache were enrolled. Complete demographic details of all the patients were recorded. Relevant history, clinical examination and routine investigations were done. Patients underwent MRI investigations. MR imaging findings were compiled as per proforma and subjected to analysis using SPSS software. Chi-square test was used for assessment of level of significance. <strong>Results: </strong>Significant abnormal MRI findings were found to be present in 1 patient with tension type headache. The patients with significant MRI finding showed few small discrete T2 and T2 flair Hyperintensities in subcortical white matter. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Patients with tension type headache should be viewed with suspicion and MRI should be done for excluding other potential etiologic factors.</p> SC Sanjay Harshavardhan Meraj Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 150 153 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.27 Usefulness of CT Scan and MRI for the Detection and Evaluation of Brain Tumors <p><strong>Background: </strong>Intracranial tumors can arise from various locations in the brain parenchyma. Computed tomography scan (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important modalities for diagnosis of intracranial tumors. The aim of the study is to study the usefulness of CT scan and MRI for the detection and evaluation of brain tumors. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a prospective cross sectional study comprising of 95 patients diagnosed with brain tumors clinically. CT scan was done in all the patients and MRI was done in 45 patients. Findings were correlated with histopathology. <strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, age group distribution included from 20 years to more than 50 years.In the present study males were predominant and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1. All the cases, (100%) presented with seizures, followed by headache, hemiparesis and vomiting. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>CT scan and MRI imaging modalities are of utmost importance in diagnosing brain tumors. Early diagnosis is important and the imaging guides the neurosurgeon regarding appropriate surgical approach.</p> D. Saraswathi G. Srirama Murthy Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 154 158 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.28 Comparison between Conventional Radiography and High Resolution Computed Tomography in Interstitial Disease of Lungs <p><strong>Background : </strong>Interstitial lung diseases are a diverse group of over 200 disease entities in which the primary site of injury is the lung interstitium. These diseases vary widely in their etiology, clinicoradiologic presentation, histopathological features and clinical course. HRCT has its limitations in the detection of interstitial lung diseases, its sensitivity is not 100% and the limitations of sensitivity are not well established.&nbsp; This study attempted to compare between conventional radiography and HRCT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>All the patients were subjected to both conventional radiography and HRCT examinations and the images were viewed and analyzed. The two modalities were compared with regards to their ability to detect findings like nodular opacities, reticular opacities, septal thickening, honeycombing, lymphadenopathy etc. <strong>Results: </strong>The study has gender distribution of 60% males and 40% females. The main result of the study was that higher number of samples with findings were detected by HRCT than conventional radiography. In the detection of nodular opacity and septal thickening, the p value was less than 0.05 meaning the difference was statistically significant. Of the 30 patients, 2 had normal chest radiograms while HRCT was able to detect reticular opacities in these patients. The most common abnormality seen in both chest radiograms and HRCT was reticular opacities. The distinction between air space nodules and interstitial nodules was also much better appreciated on HRCT than on conventional radiography. In the detection of honeycombing, HRCT was much more specific being able to detect it in cases when the chest radiogram showed only reticular opacities. Even in the detection of other findings like air trapping and lymphadenopathy, HRCT scored over conventional radiography. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>HRCT therefore seems to be the investigation of choice in evaluating patients of interstitial lung disease.</p> P. Madhu D. Santhosh Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 159 165 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.29 Clinico – Radiological Study of Skeletal Dysplasias <p><strong>Background: </strong>Skeletal dysplasia and osteochondrodysplasia refer to a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders of skeletal development and growth. Their prevalence is about 1 in 4000 births. Skeletal dysplasia is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence varies in different parts of the world and even in the same country varies from region to region. The objective is to study the prevalence of skeletal dysplasia based on clinico-radiological features. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A hospital retro prospective based study of skeletal dysplasia’s was conducted over a period of 2 years in which 100 cases of skeletal dysplasia’s were studied and were grouped according to international classification&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of osteochondrodysplasia’ s revised in 2006. <strong>Results: </strong>100 cases of skeletal dysplasia’s were detected by various modes of examination like clinical, radiological (radiographs, USG, CT scan, MRI, echocardiography), genetic and biochemical tests. Among 100 cases 22 cases showed clinico-radiologically concordance, 45 cases showed clinico-radiological complement and 40 cases showed clinico-radiological discordance. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study makes an important observation that only clinical evaluation detected only 20% of skeletal dysplasia’s; and hence the importance of clinic-radiological evaluation in the proper diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia’s.</p> B. Vanaja M Veena Shivaji Gogi Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 8 1 166 171 10.47009/ajmrr.2020.8.1.30