Assessment of Potential of First Trimester Ultrasonography in Detection of Fetal Congenital Structural Malformations- A Retrospective Study
First Trimester Ultrasonography in Detection of Fetal Congenital Structural Malformations
Background: Early detection of malformation is tremendously improved with improvement in imaging technology. Yet in a developing country like India majority of pregnant women are not privileged to get timely diagnosis. Present study aimed to assess the potential of first trimester ultrasonography in detection of fetal congenital structural malformations. Subjects and Methods: All pregnant women had anomaly scan and women with fetal structural malformations were included. All patients were screened for congenital anomalies by 11-14 week ultrasound scan (first trimester anomaly scan) as part of routine prenatal care. Second trimester scan was conducted at 18 to 22 weeks gestation. The results of the first trimester anatomic survey were correlated with second trimester target scan to evaluate value of first trimester scan for early detection of anomalies. Results: It showed that out of 924 pregnant women 472 fall under high risk category and 452 under low risk category. Out of 924 women subjected to First Trimester Anomaly Scan 18 patients demonstrated some sort of congenital anomaly whereas Mid Gestation Ultrasound Scan revealed 9 women out of 892 who gave birth to babies with congenital anomaly. Overall only 3% pregnant women revealed congenital anomalies among babies. Conclusion: There is immense need for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the field of prenatal detection of congenital malformation. Earlier detection of fetal structural malformations would allow for earlier antenatal referral to a tertiary care facility and coordination of care among appropriate subspecialists. Focus and emphasis should aim at detection of malformation earlier than 12 weeks owing to the very unique and clear facts that first trimester detection leads to easy termination of pregnancy and lessening of women’s mental, physical, and psychological trauma.