Pulmonary Function Test in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus & Its Correlation with Anthropometry and Glycemic Control
Pulmonary Function Test In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with microvascular complications and affecting almost all organs in the body. Effect of diabetes on lung functions has been studied previously with variable results. This study was performed to see the lung functions in patients with type 2 DM and to assess the pattern of abnormality in lung functions.Aim & Objective:Our study aimed to evaluate pulmonary functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to determine their correlations with anthropometric profile, glycaemic control, and diabetic microangiopathic complications.Subjects and Methods: 70 T2DM patients and 70 healthy control subjects were taken for the study. After taking an informed consent, all underwent screening with detailed history, anthropometry, blood sugar (fasting and post Prandial), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), renal profile, lipid profile and Pulmonary functions (spirometry).Statistical Analysis:Student’s t-test was used to compare PFTs of diabetic and control groups. Frequencies were generated for categorical variables and compared using the chi square test.Results: There was significant reduction in all PFT parameters (PEFR (L/s), FEV1 %, FVC ) in diabetics as compared to controls. The FEV1/FVC% was higher in the diabetes group and there was a mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern of pulmonary dysfunction seen in diabetics.BMI was inversely related to PEFR, FEV1, and FVC. Age was inversely related to FEV1, and FVC. It was found that HbA1c was not significant for any ventilator (spirometric) index.Restrictive pattern rather than obstructive impairment of lung function is likely to be chronic complication of T2DM, the severity of which relates to longer duration of symptoms of diabetes, higher BMI, and advancing age.Conclusion: Spirometry is an easily available, non invasive screening tool to assess the lung functions and should be performed in patients with type 2 diabetes having microangiopathic complications.