Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Diabetic Patients
Risk Factors of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Diabetic Patients
Background: One-third of India’s population is infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis; there are 12 million active tuberculosis cases in India. One person dies of Tuberculosis every minute in India. No other disease has so much sociological, economic and health significance as Tuberculosis has. In 2005 there were an estimated 8.8 million new cases of Tuberculosis worldwide, with 1.9 million of those occurring in India. In India in 2000, there were an estimated 481,573,000 people over the age of 25 years. Among these, 4.3% i.e. around 20,707,639 had diabetes, 19 and 939,064 developed. Subjects and Methods: The study conducted over a period of 2 yrs. Adult patients with diabetes mellitus with pulmonary Tuberculosis were included, while Diabetic patients with extrapulmonary Tuberculosis were excluded from the study. Results: The maximum incidence of pulmonary Tuberculosis was noted above the age of 30yrs were 13(26.0%). The peak incidence was in the age group of 31 – 40 and 41 – 50 yrs. The mean age is 52.62. As Shown in [Figgure 1], the total numbers of males were 64% and females were 36%. The male to female ratio was 2.11:1 As Shown in [Table 3], the distribution of patient according to their occupation noted were Skilled (18%), Unskilled (38%), Business (16%), Service (2%), Housewife (22%), and Student (4%). As shown in [Table 4], the socio-economic status among 50 patients was distributed into: Upper (2%), Upper Middle (22%), Upper lower (32%), Lower (12%), Lower middle (32%), and Lower-middle (32%). Conclusion: Early diagnosis and properly monitored treatment regimen is the only time tested answer to this problem. All diabetics at the initial diagnosis and every year must have an x-ray chest done. All diabetics with abnormal weight loss, unexplained cough, or sudden increase of insulin requirement should have sputum examination and chest x-ray done.
Syal K, Srinivasan A, Banerjee D, Vdr, Rxr. Coronin-1 and interferon r levels in PBMCs of type-2 diabetes patients: Molecular link between diabetes and Tuberculosis. Ind J Clin Biochem. 2015;30(3):323–328. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-014-0431-7.
Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:234. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-234.
Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and its risk factors among tuberculosis suspect in South East Ethiopia; a hospital based cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:285. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-285.
Jeon CY, Murray MB, Baker MA. Managing tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus: why we care and what we know. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10(8):863–868. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eri.12.75.
Riza AL, Pearson F, Ugarte-Gil C, Alisjahbana B, van de Vijver S, Panduru NM, et al. Clinical management of concurrent dia- betes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services. Lancet Diab Endocrinol. 2014;2(9):740–753. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(14)70110-x.
Ezung T, Devi NT, Singh NT, Singh TB. Pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus–a study. J Indian Med Assoc. 2002;100(6):378–379. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/201/9789241502252_eng.pdf.Accessed.
Lin Y, Li L, Mi F, Du J, Dong Y, Li Z. Screening patients with diabetes mellitus for Tuberculosis in China. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17(10):1302–1308.
Screening of tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus is feasible with the existing health system in India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2016;5(4):886–887. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.201159.
Group ITDS. Screening patients with Tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in India. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18(5):636–45. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12084.
Li L, Lin Y, Tan MF, Liang S, Guo B, C. Screening patients with Tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in China. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17(10):1294–1301. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.03068.x.
Jeon CY, Harries AD, Baker MA, Hart JE, Kapur A, Lönnroth K, et al. Bi-directional screening for tuberculosis and diabetes: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15(11):1300– 1314. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02632.x.
Lin Y, Innes A, Xu L, Li L, Chen J, Hou J, et al. Screening of patients with diabetes mellitus for tuberculosis in community health settings in China. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(8):1073–80. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12519.
Jeon CY, Murray MB. Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Active Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review of 13 Observational Studies. PLoS Med. 2008;5(7):e152–e152. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050152.
Baker MA, Harries AD, Jeon CY, Hart JE, Kapur A, Lönnroth K, et al. The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: A systematic review. BMC Med. 2011;9(1):81–85. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-9-81.
Achanta S, Tekumalla RR, Jaju J, Purad C, Chepuri R, Samyukta R. Screening tuberculosis patients for diabetes in a tribal area in South India. Public Health Action. 2013;3(1):43–47. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5588/pha.13.0033.
Alavi SM, Khoshkhoy MM. Pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus: Co-existence of both diseases in patients admitted in a teaching hospital in South West of Iran. Caspian J Intern Med. 2012;3(2):421–424.
Alisjahbana B, Crevel RV, Sahiratmadja E, Heijer MD, Maya A, Istriana E. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with Tuberculosis in Indonesia. Int J Tuber Lung Dis. 2006;10(6):696–700.
Baghaei P, Tabarsi P, Marjani M, Moniri A, Masjedi MR. Screening for diabetes mellitus in tuberculosis patients in a referral center in Iran. Inf Dis. 2015;47(7):472–476. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.3109/23744235.2015.1018317.
Balakrishnan S, Vijayan S, Nair S, Subramoniapillai J, Mrithyunjayan S, Wilson N, et al. High Diabetes Prevalence among Tuberculosis Cases in Kerala, India. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46502–e46502. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046502.
Dave P, Shah A, Chauhan M, Kumar AMV, Harries AD, Malhotra S, et al. Screening patients with tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in Gujarat, India. Public Health Action. 2013;3(1):29–33. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.5588/pha.13.0027.
Jawad F, Shera AS, Memon R, Ansari G. Glucose intolerance in pulmonary Tuberculosis. J Park Med Assoc. 1995;45:237– 238.
Lin YH, Chen CP, Chen PY, Huang JC, Ho C, Weng HH. Screening for pulmonary Tuberculosis in type 2 diabetes elderly: a cross-sectional study in a community hospital. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:3–6.
Copyright (c) 2020 Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.