Asian Journal of Clinical Pediatrics and Neonatology <p><strong class="pull-left">Asian Journal of Clinical Pediatrics and Neonatology (AJCPN)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print Quarterly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research in different fields of pediatrics and neonatology, covering etiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis aspects. <br><strong>Online ISSN: 2347-3363 | Print ISSN: 2347-3355</strong></p> Society for Health Care & Research Development en-US Asian Journal of Clinical Pediatrics and Neonatology 2347-3355 A Study on Clinical Features of pulmonary Tuberculosis in Pediatric Age Group in Rural Medical College <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Tuberculosis is a specific infectious Disease, mycobacteriumTuberculosis which is acid-fast bacilli will cause tuberculosis The disease primarily affects the lungs. It also affects meninges, Intestine, Liver, Joints, Heart, Skin, lymph glands, and called extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis isa very common problem in India and developing countries and African countries. In India 2 million population is affected annually among these 5% patients are in pediatric group 0-16 years. The aim of the study ids to study the prevalence clinical profile&nbsp;&nbsp; of pulmonary tuberculosis in rural medical college. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We have examined 140 children, out of these 140, boys were 78 and girls were 62. The age group is between 1year to 16 years. We have conducted this study for 7 months from March 2020 to Nov. 2020, In the department of pediatrics in association with the department of pulmonology in kaminani medical college. <strong>Results:</strong>We have included 140 Childrens in this study boys were 78 and girls were 62. The Commonage group is between 10 yrs -16yrs. Bilateral. Lesions were noted in 25 cases. The lesions noted are infiltration, fibro cavitary lesions, and consolidation and pleural effusion, and empyema. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>Pulmonary tuberculosis is a very common infectious disease in India, especially in rural areas, the younger age group is more commonly involved. Still, mortality is high in the rural part of India. <strong>Study design: </strong>It is an analytical study conducted in rural area to know the prevalance and the pattern of clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis in children who are residing in different areas with different socio-economic back groud. In our area the population density is not high. It is a cluster of small village. Where proper medical facilities are not available prevalance in India is 10% - 22%, In our area the prevalance is 26% -28%.</p> Kashavoyina Muralidhar Mohammad Sarfarz A Bhaskar Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 1 5 A Clinical Study on Obesity in children in Rural Medical College <p><strong>Background: </strong>Obesity is one of the most common disorders in medical practice and is the most frustrating and difficult to treat condition. Obesity is defined as the excess of adipose tissue. Body fat can be detected by physical examination, but body mass index (BMI) is used for more quantitative evaluation. Overweight and obese are the 5<em><sup>th</sup> </em>leading cause of global deaths. In 2008 more than 1.4 billion adults (20 years and older) were overweight. In 2012 more than 40 million children under 5years of age were overweight. Once considered high-income country problem, the overweight and obesity are now rising in low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Close to 30 million children are living in developing and 10millon in developed countries. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood. The aim is to study the pattern of obesity in children in rural medical college. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>We have conducted this study for 8 months from March 2020 to October 2020 in the department of pediatrics in Kamineni medical college. Informed consent has been taken from parents and the college ethical committee approval has been obtained. careful history taking, height and weight were measured for each child by trained paramedical staff. We have included 965 children in this study. <strong>Results: </strong>We have included 965 total children in this study out of these 965, boys were 445 and girls were 520. The studied age group is between 8 and 16 years. All are from different residential areas and parents were of different qualifications and occupations. In our study we found the total overweight and obese children were 230. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Obesity is a common medical problem in India and worldwide also. It is observed commonly in girls. In rural areas also the prevalence in girls is high. In rural areas, lack of physical activity and faulty eating habits may be common causes for increasing prevalence.</p> Kashavoyina Muralidhar Mohammad Sarfarz A Bhaskar Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 6 9 To Assess the Immunization Status as Regards BCG, OPV, DPT, Hep B and Measles and Factors Affecting it in Children (9months- 6years) Attending OPD/IPD Services of Pediatric Department At TMMC&RC, Moradabad <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>To determine immunization status of children, to study the factors affecting immunization status of children. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>This was a hospital based cross-sectional observational study. Patients: children who attended the OPD or admitted as in patients (IPD services) during the study period and the documents available with them. Inclusion Criteria: Children in the age group of (9 months–6 years) attending Paediatric OPD, Immunization clinic and children admitted in Paediatric ward. Exclusion Criteria: 1. Parents/ caregivers not giving consent. 2. Information of vaccination not available. Statistical Analysis: All the results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software version 24, Fisher’s Exact test, Chi-square test and Student’s ‘t’ test were used for evaluation of level of significance. P- Value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. <strong>Results: </strong>In total 360 cases were enrolled in this study. 150 (41.67%) of the children were fully immunized while 150 (41.67%) and 60 (16.66%) of the children were partially immunized and unimmunized respectively. BCG vaccination was done in 76.7 % of the children. DPT1, DPT2, DPT3 were given to 75 percent, 72.2 percent, 58.3 percent of the children respectively. OPV1 OPV2 OPV3 were given in 81.7 percent, 75.3 percent, 61.4 percent of the children respectively. Measles 1 vaccination was done in 62.2 percent of the children. Hep B1, Hep B2, Hep B3 vaccination was done in 75 percent, 72.2 percent, 58.3 percent of the children respectively. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>immunization status of study subjects was lower than the NFHS4 national and state data. Low parental education, home delivery, daily wager father’s occupation, joint nature of family, low monthly income and increasing birth order were found to be significantly associated with partial/complete unimmunization. The factors such as gender and religion did not have any significant relationship to partial/complete unimmunization. More studies on the same subject will help to find local factors affecting immunization in various areas.</p> Jivesh Loona Baljeet Maini B. K. Guar Rupa Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 10 16 Paediatric Physiotherapy: Experience as Seen at a Tertiary Health Facility in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: The need for paediatric physiotherapy, which has a vital role in health promotion, prevention and treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders, is on the increase as many more children are surviving with chronic illnesses/disabilities, and require it to improve function and promote independence. The objectives was to carry out an audit of the utilization and outcome of paediatric physiotherapy services at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria. <strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A retrospective study of cases of children who attended the Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Physiotherapy of the UPTH between January 2017 and December 2019. Their clinical profile and outcome of therapy were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. <strong>Results</strong>: Four hundred and one cases, 200(49.9%) males and 201(50.1%) females, were analysed. Under-fives constituted 83.3% of them while the most frequent indication for referral was delayed motor milestones (47.8%). Majority of subjects (79.2%) were referred by a physician from within (60%) or outside the hospital (19.2%). The commonest diagnosis of subjects were palsies (89%), of which cerebral (53%) and Erb’s (26.3%) topped the list. Subjects benefited from single or combined modalities of therapy. Less than 20% completed the prescribed therapy and were discharged while most subjects (68%) stopped treatment by themselves. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Neurological conditions, especially cerebral palsy, were the major reason for utilisation of paediatric physiotherapy services, and mostly by children below 5 years of age. High default rate was a contributory factor to poor outcome in most cases, denying many children of the help they can get to improve their continued health, well-being and mobility.</p> Gracia Ker Eke Apata Feminiyi Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 17 22 Severe Complicated Plasmodium Vivax Malaria Presenting as Shock in a Child <p>Malaria is a vector-borne disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite having five species (falciparum, vivax, ovale, malariae and knowlesi) trans- mitted to humans through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. South East Asia is the second most affected region in the world, with India carrying the highest burden of the disease. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are the most common species found in India. Severe complications of malaria have been more commonly seen in Plasmodium falciparum infections, and those caused by Plasmodium vivax have been considered benign. But in recent times, the severity caused by Plasmodium vivax has been emerging in India and is in equal ratio with Plasmodium falciparum to the malaria incidence. Here we report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with high-grade fever with chills, burning micturition, weak peripheral pulses, reduced oral acceptance, hypotension and pallor. The diagnosis was established by a thick and thin film of peripheral blood smear examination under oil immersion with Giemsa stain and Malarial Antigen Test. The child was started on anti-malarial therapy and fluid therapy was given to treat shock.</p> Veeranna Kotrashetti Vijay Baburao Sonawane Kapil S Bainade Revanth Sai Madhav Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 23 25 A Randomized Control Comparative Trial of Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate and Hypertonic Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Acute bronchiolitis is the common lower respiratory tract illness requiring hospitalization in children &lt; 2years. Vaious treatment modalities proposed to manage the acute bronchiolitis. But no study has been recommended for the treatment other than supportive management. Hence this study aims to study the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate in acute bronchiolitis. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A hospital-based randomized prospective comparative clinical observational study conducted in 110 children with mild to moderate bronchiolitis, randomly divided into two groups; Group 1 received 4 ml of hypertonic saline nebulization with 100% oxygen at an interval of 20mins for the first&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; three doses and then 4<em><sup>th</sup> </em>hourly. Group 2, received 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/dose of 25% magnesium sulfate made to 4ml with 0.9% normal saline. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) scores were monitored throughout the study. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age was 7.5 + 3.2 months, 6.5 + 3 months in group 1, and group 2 without significant difference(p=0.6). 30(54.54%) cases, and 25(45.45) cases belongs to mild and moderate category of bronchiolitis in group1, and 28(52.7%) cases and 27 (47.27%) cases belongs to the mild and moderate category of bronchiolitis in group 2 (p&gt;0.05). 8(14.54%) cases had leukocytosis and 2 (3.63%) cases had leucopenia in group 1, whereas, Leukocytosis and leucopenia were present in 12(21.81%) and 2(3.63%) cases respectively in group 2. The most common chest X-ray findings in acute bronchiolitis were hyperinflation followed by segmental atelectasis. The mean hospital stay in nebulized with hypertonic saline and magnesium sulfate was 3.5 + 1.0 days and 3.0 + 1.1 days, respectively. The length of hospital stay between hypertonic saline and magnesium sulfate group was slightly longer in moderate bronchiolitis. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The mean hospital stay in nebulized with hypertonic saline is higher than and magnesium sulfate. RDAI score does not vary significantly between two groups after nebulization. Further trials with large sample size, the inclusion of children with severe bronchiolitis, and assessment of long-term outcomes are recommended.</p> G. Chandra Sekhar Ramisetty M Umamahesh Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 26 31 Decoding the Myth of Severity in HIE – A Study to Find Correlation of Serum Sodium and Calcium Levels with HIE Severity in Asphyxiated Neonates with Convulsion <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and can lead to severe long term neurodeficits. There is a complex interaction of released neurotransmitters, altered electrolytes level and enzymatic activation. Without proper evaluation of biochemical changes, it is difficult to control its progression. The objective is to give an insight into correlation of severity with hypocalcemia and hyponatremia among HIE cases. <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>To conduct this cross sectional observational study serum sodium and calcium levels were measured in asphyxiated newborns who presented with seizure i.e HIE stage 2 and stage 3. Measured electrolytes levels were compared with severity of encephalopathy. <strong>Results: </strong>Results showed negative linear correlation of severity with both sodium and calcium levels but strength of association was more with sodium (r = -.631) than calcium (r = -.247). Also delay in presentation was more strongly associated with hyponatremia than hypocalcemia. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Biochemical disturbances are very common in newborn with perinatal asphyxia. Among those who are presenting with seizures, hyponatremia is possibly more detrimental than hypocalcemia.</p> Sushama Sahoo Sanjib Mandal Copyright (c) 2021 Author 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 1 32 35